The Weaver Refining Co Ltd - some dates
Some Significant Dates - Timeline -
Textiles formed the major part of international trade which strained international relations as mercantilist powers jockeyed for supremacy in a beggar thy neighbour zero sum world ...
1600 - East India Company founded.
1624 - The Statute of Monopolies - Patent Law gave some protection to the rewards from science & innovation
1624 - The Act of Usury - overturned the 1571 Act and confirmed a new moral attitude to investment rewards
1647 - Liverpool made a free port, independent of Chester.
1664 - first tea imported from China.
1670 - Cheshire Cheese shipped to London from Frodsham in 20/30 ton ketches.
1670 - rock salt discovered at Marbury.
1685 - revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
1688 - glorious revolution & confidence - but settlement of the civil war was threatened by the Jacobite uprisings, religious rivalry, French competition, Scottish independence ... and 'lace wars' ...
1687 - Isaac Newton 'Principia'.
1696 - Vale Royal furnace built.
1699 - The Baptist Mills brass works, in Bristol & William Champion.
1700 - Prohibition Act banned imported printed calicos from India to 'protect' local employment but which led immediately to the attraction of 'forbidden fruit', smuggling & the decimation of the wool trade as imports of unprinted calicos thrived
1702 - Baptist Mills and the Bristol Brass Company; William Champion from Bristol moved to Flintshire
1702 - Thomas Cotchet & George Sorocold built the first silk mill in Derby.
1704 - Newton's 'Opticks'.
1704 - Edward Wright started lead smelting at Gadlys and John Freame from London invested in the London Lead Company, Flintshire.
1704 - Aire & Calder Navigation & proto industry in Halifax.
1706 - Coalbrookdale and the first coke blast furnaces; Abraham Darby's son in law from Bristol invested in the new technology at Bersham, in Flintshire.
1707 - Act of Union.
1709 - First cargo of cotton traded in Liverpool.
1709 - Abraham Darby at Coalbrookdale, coke and iron smelting.
1712 - Thomas Newcomen atmospheric engine in Cornwall.
1715 - Liverpool Dock opened.
1717 - John Lombe and espionage in Italy.
1717 - Cheadle Brass & Copper Company; Thomas Barker & Thomas Patten from Warrington moved into Greenfield.
1717 - Thomas Patten & copper smelting works at Bank Quay, Warrington.
1719 - Thomas & John Lombe start their new silk mill in Derby.
1720 - Bubble Act & company restrictions.
1720 - Acts for the Irwell & Mersey Navigation and the Weaver Navigation passed.
1721 - John Lombe poisoned, his half brother Thomas takes over.
1721 - riots led to the banning of calicos from India, investment in cotton processing machinery which put thousands of domestic spinners out of work.
1722 - Workhouse Test Act allows for the setting up of workhouses by parishes.
1727 - 1st Turnpike Trust Act.
1732 - Parliament petitioned not to renew Lombe's patent.
1733 - John Kay from Bury, and his flying shuttle.
1734 - Thomas Patten opens the Weaver Navigation and no doubt up the new navigation came lead from Gadlys for the Northwich salt pans.
1737 - Dee canalised.
1738 - Lewis Paul & John Wyatt and their spinning rollers for carding.
1739 - David Hume, 'A Treatise on Human Nature'.
1743 - copper batteries - Anglesey, St Helens, Greenfield & the Liverpool slave trade.
1744 - Charles Roe erects the first silk throwing mill in Macclesfield.
1750 - Turnpike Trusts tackle the roads.
1752 - John Clayton builds a silk mill in Congleton.
1757 - Sankey Brook Navigation, from St Helens to Widnes.
1759 - Josiah Wedgwood, industrialised pottery.
1761 - Bridgewater Canal first used from Worsley to Manchester; extended to Runcorn & The Mersey in 1773; extended to Leigh in 1795 and linked to the Leeds Liverpool canal in 1816.
1763 - Seven Years War & victory for commercial enterprise & trade over French, Bourbon mercantilism.
1764 - James Hargreaves and his spinning jenny produced the cotton weft which released hours and hours of tiresome toil in the cottages for more innovative pursuits in the textile mills ... power looms, bleaching, printing ...
1768-74 & 1790-1816 - Leeds Liverpool canal ... Yorkshire wool and access to Liverpool.
1769 - Richard Arkwright from Preston & Bolton, water frame spinning.
1770 - James Hargrave from Blackburn, spinning jenny.
1771 - Ban on cotton garments lifted. From 1721-71 the wool, linen & silk activities had been 'protected' from foreign imports.
1771 - Cromford Mill on the Derwent.
1773 - Inclosure Act - An Act for the better Cultivation, Improvement, and Regulation of the Common Arable Fields, Wastes, and Commons of Pasture in this Kingdom.
1775 - cotton mill in Stockport.
1776 - James Watt develops his steam engine powered the factories at the expense of water and the working horses ... horse power had a new meaning.
1777 - Trent and Mersey Canal opens.
1779 - Samuel Crompton from Bolton, mule spinning, the fine Muslin Wheel.
1780 - Lower salt layer discovered at Marston.
1780 - William Cockshott starts his cotton mill in Northwich.
1781 - Daniel Whittaker surveyed the site at Acton Bridge for his prospective cotton mill 3 years before his investment in The Greenfield Valley.
1782 - Peter Drinkwater purchases the Northwich Mill.
1784 - Liverpool imports American cotton. (- tannins - hides - bones - zinc - meat?)
1784 - Henry Cort, reverberatory furnace and rolling mills.
1785 - Cotton arrives by the side of the Bollin in Macclesfield.
1785 - Edmund Cartwright builds his power loom.
1787 - Cotton spinning at Northwich. Greenfield & water power available.
1795 - Ellesmere canal, Chester to the Mersey at Ellesmere Port opened.
1800 - A Weaver blacksmith at his puddled iron forge at Acton Bridge used pig iron from Vale Royal and Bersham
1801 - first national census.
1810 - Luddites smashed new machines.
1813 - Sir Humphrey Davey recommends bone meal fertilisers.
1815 - Corn Laws banned importation of cheap grain which led to food riots and Peterloo.
1819 - The Factories Regulations Act restricted the employment of child labour.
1820 - Greenfield paper making - water, Fourdrinier machines, esparto grass & access to Liverpool.
1823 - Holywell gas making - coal & 'the extension of daylight'.
1825 - Bubble Act repealed. The time wasting inconvenience & cost of a Parliamentary Act for each floatation was abandoned. Salt Tax abolished, Leblanc process takes off.
1826 - Joint Stock Banks.
1830 - Liverpool to Manchester Railway opened.
1830 - Halkyn limestone & cement - quarries for local construction in Liverpool.
1834 - Poor Law Amendment Act sets up Poor Law Unions.
1835 - John Budd's new zinc printing cylinder technology directly confronted John Williams' established copper cylinder business at Holywell.
1837 - Galvanising invented.
1837 - Birmingham, Crewe to Warrington railway via Acton Bridge.
1842 - Greenfield zinc refining - cheap segregated ores and available technology.
1843 - John Budd's zinc rolling mill used spelter from Vivian & Sons in Swansea and Crockford's works at Greenfield.
1846 - free trade debate, Corn Laws repealed which enabled cheap food to be imported to pay for exports of manufactures and jobs in the factories.
1848 - Chester to Holyhead Railway opened.
1848 - Greenfield wool flannel - first power looms successfully used in the Welsh woollen industry, a trained supply of hands & access to Liverpool.
1856 - Limited Liability.
1862 - Limited Liability Act.
1864 - 1st steamer on the Weaver.
1864 - Holywell railways - Holywell Railway Company.
1875 - Anderton Boat Lift, connects the Weaver to the Trent & Mersey canal.
1873 - Brunner Mond (plc 1881, ICI 1926).
1877 - 25" O S survey.
1880 - Neumann's, Ashton's & Witton Flashes appear as lower rock salt mines flood.
1882 - Dutton Lock raises water level at Acton Bridge, power disappeared and up the Weaver came coal from St Helens ... for the steam engines.
1882 - Mersey Salt & Brine Co lays pipeline from Marbury to Weston Point.
1888 - The Salt Union incorporated.
1889 - Cordite invented.
1894 - Manchester Ship Canal opens.
1895 - Castner Kellner - electrolysis of brine.
1896 - first steel ship built at 'The Dock' in Northwich.
1903 - Local electricity at Anderton. 1927 the National Grid.
1905 - Royal Commission on the Poor Law and the Unemployed.
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