Nathaniel Milner (1718-1797) Georgian Gentlemen

A Century of Trade, Technology & Tort Law

wantingcaution !! this is an initial draft ... these notes are on my server for safe keeping !!

 

 

 

The Hindley and the Birchall families of Cheshire certainly had some roots in an agricultural revolution which developed and produced some meagre food surpluses and freed up a little time from toil on the land to spend on the acquisition of craft skills ... some Hindley ancestors learned cheese making & shoemaking skills and some Birchall ancestors were workers of wood and acquired new industrial skills in the manufactories.

For sure it was patchy progress as fortune ebbed & flowed but hard work, honesty & thrift seemed a good survival strategy.

It appeared both families produced skilled craftsmen but latterly in the Hindley family there was an entrepreneur; Edward Hindley.

Edward was part of a fascinating flow of progress at a riparian site on the River Weaver at Acton Bridge in Cheshire. This was industrial progress which was an important part of the industrial revolution. A flow which escaped the foibles of fate and bankruptcy and cashed in on a series of propitious mergers, takeovers & reorganisations which could be traced forward to the modern company, Croda; an international producer of speciality chemicals. The flow could also be traced back into the mists of ancient craft skills forged by the side of the river at Acton Bridge.

Two other families added interest to this story of industry & enterprise at Acton Bridge; the Milners and the Whittakers both approached the industrial revolution, not as craftsmen, but as merchants of cloth. It was the merchant class who accumulated sufficient funds for investment in the factories of mass production in Mid & East Cheshire. Of course they had some assistance from the bankers in London who earned their trust and backed their ventures with more hard cash.

It was clear both the Milners and the Whittakers played an important part in this local progression; they were risk takers who succeeded big time ...

Milner Arms & CrestThe Milners

The Milner family genes were well dispersed & diversified ... the Milners were everywhere, perhaps such profligacy was unsurprising as this occupational name of Germanic origin was derived from the old English 'mlyn' or 'mill' ... they were also found in Holland; good Anglo Saxon stock?

The family Milner emerged as an English family of great antiquity in Yorkshire. First records indicated that Pudsey in the West Riding of Yorkshire was one of the family hot seats ... but later there were also Milners in Acton, Stretton & Moore ... and Milners in Hartford Hall ...

Nathaniel Milner (1718-1797) of Acton was right in the middle of the dramatic change in rural Cheshire as the industrial revolution got underway ... Nathaniel was steeped in an 18th century of almost continuous confrontation with France and its alien culture of absolutist Bourbon Kings and mercantilism ... he was well aware that some individuals appeared to be omnipotent but he mused that they were only dwarfs standing on the shoulders of institutional giants ... the revolutions of the 17th century were over ... Nathaniel was a free spirit, he strived, coped & contributed ...

Nathaniel was a merchant, a free trader, but little detail of his activities emerged from the mists ... however it seemed his family roots were in Yorkshire where ancestors and distant cousins left much more recorded evidence ... Pudsey in the West Riding of Yorkshire was wool country ... and this was where the search for Nathaniel of Acton started; how was he connected to the wool merchants of Leeds?

It seemed the story of the Milners and wool were inseparable, a story which was well researched -

'The Wool Trade in English Medieval History' by Eileen Power, 1941.

'Gentlemen Merchants: the Merchant Community in Leeds, 1700-1830' by Richard George Wilson, 1971.

'Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders 1550-1653' by Robert Brenner, 2003.

'The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages' by T H Lloyd, 2005.

The pedigrees of West Riding families was outlined in 1874 by Joseph Foster and in Volume 2 was listed - MILNER, of Pudsey, now of Nun Appleton.

The History of Pudsey by Simeon Rayner, 1887 confirmed the Pudsey Milner lineage.

Yorkshire deeds, Volume 2 by William Brown, Cambridge University Press, 1909 adds more grist to the mill ... it proved the Milner family were essentially a Halifax family and later acquired lands in Pudsey ...

The Baronetage of England by William Betham covers the Milner Nun Appleton branch ... however in 'The Registers of the Parish Church of Calverley' by ‎Samuel Margerison, 1887 the connection between Pudsey and Nun Appleton was questioned - 'Joseph Foster has erroneously made the family of Nun Appleton spring from that of Pudsey, and calls Marmaduke Milner, of Maker, in Richmondshire, brother of Samuel Milner, of Pudsey, who died in 1643. This perfectly gratuitous assumption is not justified by facts; for the Milners of Calvet House in Muker can be traced a long way back, and have a perfectly independent origin'.

Rosa's TreePerhaps, for the Acton Milners, the most interesting record came from Rosa Louise Milner the wife of Edward John Milner of Hartford Hall, Director of Brunner Mond. Sometime around the turn of the last century, Rosa commissioned an intriguing research project into the ancient Milner clan for her four sons, Charles Edward, George Fell, Dennis & Geoffrey ... this beautiful manuscript confirmed the Milner lineage at some stage linked Pudsey to Acton ...

Thomas de Molendarius de Pudsey ...

Richardus Mylner of Pudsey married Cicely of Pudsey ...

John Mylner of Pudsey ...

Robert Mylner of Pudsey 1416 ...

Richard Mylner 1459 ...

Robert Mylner (-1541) of Pudsey died in 1541 = Anne Wharton of Harewood ...

John Mylner (1518-86) of Pudsey was born 1518 (aged 63 in 1584) and in 1543 he married Ann Waterhouse (1524-) of Hollins, Halifax, born in Moot Hall, Halifax, West Riding, Yorkshire, England. Daughter of Robert Waterhouse (1498-1578) of Moot Hall and of Shibden. He was the son of John Waterhouse (1469-1539), who was the eldest son of Richard Waterhouse, and founder of the Waterhouse family. The propitious marriage of John Milner and Ann Waterhouse was clearly recorded by John W Clay in 'Familiae Minorum Gentium', lineage 'D'.

Shibden HallAnn's father, Robert Waterhouse, married Sibel Savile, and inherited the Manor and Shibden Hall from the Saville family, they had 5 children including Ann - (1) John (1523-83) in 1545 he bought the Manor of Halifax-cum-Heptonstall - (2) George (1525-1???) who's son Robert (1554-1617) married Grace Milner, John & Ann's son  - (3) Gregory - (4) Ann who married John Milner - (5) Richard.

The early Waterhouse family were heavily involved with the Priory of Lewes and had land leases &  churches under the Priory. In May 1532 on the dissolution of the monasteries, Prior Robert granted to Robert Waterhouse, of Halifax, his heirs and assigns, the right of advowson of this church, together with all manner of tythes. Robert pushed his luck and became very wealthy and a person of note. The family made their fortune the sheep, the wool trade and as tax collectors.

Shibden Hall, Halifax was the home of the Waterhouse family until it was sold by Edward Waterhouse in 1612.

John Milner had married well and started the intertwining of the Milners of Pusey & Waterhouses of Halifax. John Crabtree told the story of wool, Halifax and the Waterhouses in 1836 ... the Waterhouses were numerous ... it was Robert Waterhouse who triggered off a dispute over tithes in 1535 when he demanded a tenth of the harvest instead of the fixed sum of money which had become the custom.

John Milner & Ann Waterhouse had children  -

1. Robert Milner (-1588) of Pudsey = Mary Draper (-), daughter & co-heiress of Thomas Draper of Broadbotham, Halifax. They were married on the 29th of November 1573. Robert died in 1588 and left a will identifying wife Mary, brother-in-law Robert Waterhouse and eldest son Samuel (1577-1643) and sons John (1579-), Robert (1581-) and Thomas (1582-) ... and an unborn child.

A receipt of 1573 (DD12/I/2/127) confirmed Brian Ferrer of Halifax and Robert Ferrer his son received £891 10s, the balance of the purchase money of their lands in Pudsey which were sold to Robert Milner. Endorsed with a note of enrolment in the West Riding registry. The whole was a copy certified by John, Robert and Francis Milner.

2. Gregory Milner BD died in 1615 ...

3. Anne Milner married Christopher Lindsey of Snawden

4. Grace Milner (1555-) born in Pudsey, in about 1586 Grace married her cousin Robert Waterhouse (1554-1617) of Harthill. Robert Waterhouse (1554-1617) of Harthill, first married Grace, daughter of John Milner of Pudsey. But second married Mary, widow of Francis Milner?
Robert Waterhouse (1554-1617) was the son of George Waterhouse (1525-1???) of Harthill, who was the son of the elder Robert Waterhouse; George  married Effame Wilkinson, daughter of Richard Wilkinson of Bradford.

 Will of Robert Waterhouse of Harthill, Gent, 17 July 1617 - 'To May my wife, late wife of Francis Milner of Whitwell, clerk, deceased, and to every son that I have begotten or shall beget on her body. Son John Waterhouse alias Lindley, daughter-in-law Ann W, my son Maximilian's wife, brother-in-law John Milner and my sister, his wife. John Milner & Richard Milner sons of my said brother John M; Alex M my brother-in-law, Margaret & Martha, daughters of my son Maximilian's daughter Mary; to son Maximilian all leases, advowsons, tithes etc; Wife Mary to be guardian to all my children in their minority; residue to his sons John Waterhouse alias Lindley and George Waterhouse, and appoints his kinsmen and friends George Blount, Esq, Jasper Blitheman, Esq, Thos Cotes, Gent. Supervisors, to each a double sovereign'.

5. John Milner (-) of Whitwell Derbyshire. N B - John Milner of Whitwell, Derbyshire was the son of John Milner of Pudsey.
His mother was Ann, daughter of Robert Waterhouse of the Moote Hall in Halifax and of Shibden Hall (d1578). John Milner's cousin Robert Waterhouse was MP for Aldborough and 'loving friend' to George, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (1528-90).

Thomas Sowthwaites alias Milner (1525-89) was John's cousin see 'Thomas Milner of Skutterskelfe: the life & times of a Tudor Gentleman' researched by Alice Barrigan in 2014 - 'my cousin John Milner' was one of the men that Thomas Milner named to assist his daughter in the execution of his will. This John Milner 'of Whitwell, gentleman' was also a trustee in his daughter's marriage settlement. He was the son of John Milner of Pudsey and first cousin to Robert Waterhouse of Shibden Hall, Halifax (1544-98). According to Waterhouse's will, the Whitwell in question lay in Derbyshire; it is a village in the north-east of the county.
WYL100/HX/A/106 - 14 Jan 1595. Parties 1. Nicholas Waterhous of Bowlsheye co York, gent, Robert Waterhous of Harthill co York and John Milner of Whitwell co Darbye gent. 2. Robert Waterhous of the city of yorke esq,
Reciting that Nicholas Waterhous was seised of a messuage or tenement in Halifax called the Old Hall with its appurtenances (described) and 2 fulling mills in Southowram late in occupation of Edward Lillye and George Stocke and that on 30 Jan. 33 Eliz. (1590/1) he conveyed all his premises in Hallifax Southowrom and Northowrom to Robert Waterhous and John Milner to uses there set out, with proviso for alteration.

The union of Robert Milner & Mary was fortuitous with considerable issue -

Samuel Milner (1577-1643) of Pudsey = Grace, daughter of Edward Oldfield of Wadlands, Calverley.

John Milner (1579-1629) ... was this John of Woodhouses, Frodsham who died in 1629? John of Woodhouses left a will ... he had a sister Margaret?

Robert (1581-)

Thomas (1582-1636) ... was this Thomas the Yeoman of Helsby who died in 1636? Thomas also left a will.

and perhaps Marmaduke Milner (-) of Calvet House, Muker, Swaledale established an estate which descended according to the custom of gavelkind ... gavelkind was a system of land tenure where the inheritance pattern bears a resemblance to an ancient Germanic tradition. Under this law, land was divided equally among sons or other heirs.

NB 'The Registers of the Parish Church of Calverley' by ‎Samuel Margerison, 1887 suggest the Marmaduke clan had an independent origin?

The Marmaduke clan - cloth merchants of Leeds, Amsterdam & Rotterdam.

William Milner (1662-1740), Marmaduke's great grandson, made a fortune from his merchant activities and sponsorship of the Aire & Calder Canal. In 1709 he purchased the estate of Nun Appleton. A Leeds clothing merchant, who made his money from the wool trade and the Aire & Calder Canal to became an established part of the landed gentry, ensuring respect and security for his family. It was easy to understand William's motivation ... it was not profit from the dark satanic mills but the founding of a secure dynasty based on idyllic lands of milk & honey. Perhaps there was little security in the wool trade as bankruptcy and cotton were around? This insight had important economic consequences as R G Wilson explained; perhaps this social mobility from the marriage of trade success and land ownership sparked a transformation as new ideas & synergies led to betterment of land & condition which underpinned the economic success of the industrial revolution. Interestingly Wilson also compares & contrasts this early social mobility with the problems in France ...

R G Wilson was to the point - 

'William Milner, so wealthy he was known as 'Alderman Wealthy', lived next to his cloth packing shops and warehouses beside the grimy River Aire in Central Leeds for over 30 years after he had bought Nun Appleton estate in 1709. He rebuilt the great tumbledown mansion of the Fairfaxes, who had fallen on hard times, in the next 3 years. But it was left to his Eton educated son, given the estate and created a baronet in 1717 on marrying the daughter of the Archbishop of York, and returned as MP for York 5 years later, to enjoy a landed lifestyle. Thereafter the latter's most obvious connection to Leeds was to be buried in the parish church with his forebears'.

Nun Appleton Priory.
The Nun Appleton Priory was acquired by The 1st Lord Fairfax of Cameron, a Yorkshire man with a Scottish peerage, following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In 1711 the estate was sold to Alderman William Milner of Leeds who carried out many alterations to the house. In 1717 his son Sir William Milner (1696-1745) was created the 1st Milner Baronet, of Nun Appleton Hall in the County of York. The estate then descended in the Milner family until 1875, when the estate's owner, Sir William Mordaunt Milner, 6th Baronet, was more interested in gambling than looking after it!

The Aire & Calder Canal.
The Aire & Calder Canal made navigable the Rivers Aire & Calder in the West Riding. In 1704 the Aire was improved to Leeds and the Calder to Wakefield, by the construction of 16 locks. Earlier the river Aire had been partly navigable where it was tidal and carried boats up to 30 tons. The traders of Leeds, including, of course, the Milners were all keen on a navigable link to the sea to make their exports of wool easier.

Interestingly the Milners were also involved with the merchants of Liverpool in the Weaver Navigation a little later in 1720 ... unsurprisingly exactly the same issues arose - the lobbying of parliament, the raising of capital, the protectionist shenanigans of existing transport systems and existing riparian facilities, the Thomas Telford surveys ...

Sir William Milner (1696-1745) was educated at Eton & Cambridge and became the first baronet of Nun Appleton in 1717, an MP for York in 1727 and Grand Master of the Freemasons in 1728. He married Elizabeth, the daughter of the Archbishop of York ... the Marmaduke clan had made it!

The Samuel Clan - of Pudsey Manor.

1. Robert Milner (1601-) the first son of Samuel & Grace, born in Calveley, bought the Manor of Pudsey from Walter Calverley in 1663. Robert married Anne daughter of Robert Ferrand (1597-1674) of Harden, Bingley in 1647. The Ferrands were another Yorkshire family of note as described by J Horsfall Turner in 1897. And it was Robert Ferrand who purchased Old Harden Grange in 1636. The Ferrands had spread down Airedale from Skipton to Bingley during the sixteenth century and Robert Ferrand, a Merchant who made his money in London, was able to purchase Harden Grange in 1636.

Wikipedia recorded that the St Ives estate near Bingley was originally divided between the monks of Rievaulx Abbey and Drax Priory. After the dissolution in 1540 the land was purchased by a Walter Paslew and was subsequently owned by the Laycock and Milner families. The St Ives mansion house was built in 1616. In 1636 the Ferrands purchased St Ives, at the time known as Harden Grange, and it was in 1858 that the names of Harden Grange and the local St Ives were interchanged.

Robert & Anne had descendents who settled in Preston Hall, Maidstone, Kent.

John Milner (-1710/11), son of Robert, was the next Lord of the Manor, and he was one of the witnesses who signed the will of Elkana Wales, at Leeds, in 1669. Elkana Wales (1588-1669) was a faithful pastor at Pudsey Chapel for half a century. Educated at Trinity, Cambridge from 1605, he was an excellent preacher with profound judgement. As an ardent non conformist The Act of Uniformity of 1662 resulted in the loss of his job but nothing could remove his passions & beliefs.

John (-1724), son of John was an MD who died intestate in 1710-11, the heir-in-law of the estate was his brother Charles (-) of Preston Hall, who had no children and in turn left the estate to his great nephew Charles Cottam who assumed the name Milner and was living in Preston Hall in 1815!

Perhaps John Milner (1628–1702) born at Skircoat, the second son of John Milner & Mary, daughter of Gilbert Ramsden, the learned divine was the most famous Milner.

The Milners were mixing with a formidable peer group!

Pudsey ManorPudsey Manor.
In the Domesday Survey of 1086-7 Podeschesaie (Pudsey) had land worth 40 shillings before being laid waste by Normans, while Caverleia and Ferselleia's land was worth only 20 shillings.
For the next 500 years Pudsey, while retaining its identity as a separate township, developed as a sub manor of Calverley, held by the Scott family of Calverley. This family, which soon took the surname 'Calverley', paid dearly for its papist sympathies during the Civil war.  To help meet his debts Walter Calverley sold the Pudsey manor to Tempest Milner in 1650/51 and confusingly resold them later in 1663 to Robert Milner?

(DD12/I/24/1) An indenture of 1650/51 between Henry Calverley & Walter Calverley his son & heir, and Tempest Milner & John Kay, led to a recovery by Robert Milner (brother of Tempest) and Maurice Dethin of tenements in Upper & Lower Pudsey with Pudsey Chapel and to the ultimate devolution of the same, viz to Henry Calverley for life, to Tempest Milner & heirs for 50 years and remainder to Henry Calverley & his heirs. It appeared Tempest purchased the Manor of Pudsey & estates there from Henry Calverley, & Joyce, his wife, in 1649, and reconveyed them to Henry Calverley, in 1650.
Robert Milner, brother of Tempest, then purchased the Manor of Pudsey & estates there from Walter Calverley, in 1663.

Pat Hudson identified the important role Sir Walter Calverley played in the wool business around 1700 -

'Sir Walter Calverley at the beginning of the century induced many clothiers to come and reside on his estate by providing fulling mills and by making it possible for the farmer to be a clothier and the clothier to be a farmer'.

The Milners subsequently sold most of their Pudsey estate during the early l9th Century, the remnant of the manor eventually being acquired by a local eccentric destined to die in the workhouse.

2. Tempest Milner (1603-73) the second son of Samuel & Grace, born in Calverley, went to London to make his fortune. He was a linen draper of Islington, Master of the Merchant Taylors Company in 1655, Alderman of London and Sheriff in 1656. Tempest married Mary Turner (1615-), a London girl daughter of Richard Turner in 1632/33. A reformed Protestants with an offensive interregnum record.
His 1st son, John Milner (1657-1712), of Thames Ditton, MP, was English Consul at Lisbon, in Portugal. He married Elizabeth Corall of Lincoln in 16??.
His 2nd son, James Milner (1658-1721), of Weston Green, Thames Ditton, a merchant of London, involved in overseas trade with Portugal. On 23rd of November 1721 James, ‘shot himself in the head, and died the next day’. His will of 1721 left his fortune to his nephew and his nieces; the children of elder brother, John Milner.

Tempest second married Rebecca Burn, on the 25th of October 1662.

Tempest Milner was buried on the 14th of November 1673; Allhallows Bread Street, Islington, London, Middlesex, England.

3. Richard (1604-59), chief Alderman of Leeds 1652. Served under Sir Thomas Fairfax. Married Alice niece of Joshua Jenkinson of Leeds. Marie (1638-), Elizabeth (1639-), Gregory (1640-)

4. Thomas (1607-)

5. John (1611-) The Visitation of London, anno domine 1633, 1634, and 1635, edited by Joseph Jackson Howard & Joseph Lemuel Chester ... this was unlikely to be the John of Woodhouses, Frodsham who married Ellen and died in 1629? (i.e. aged 18!?)

daughters -

Mary (1597-) married Robert Kay (-) of Wackfield, Yorkshire.

Susan (1599-) married Mansfield Hazell (-)

Alice (1609-)

Grace (1613-)

The Acton & Hartford Clan - via Pudsey & Woodhouses.

John Milner (-1629) of Woodhouses, Frodsham ... was this John the brother of Samuel? 

It was this John, married to Ellen (-1630), who left a will proved in in Chester in 1630 which confirmed at some time some Milners had left Pudsey and the wool trade for Woodhouses, a hamlet close to the River Weaver at Frodsham ...

John died on the 23rd of April 1629 at Frodsham.

Ellen died in 1646 at Frodsham. Ellen also left a will dated the 23rd of August 1630... administered in 1646?

Children - Richard (-), William (-), John (-), Thomas (-) & daughters Margaret (-), Mary (-) & Sarah (-)

grandfather Daniel Milner (-1717) married Mary Waine (-1700) in 1662 at St Oswald's Chester (was Mary Waine his cousin, Sarah Milner's daughter???). Daniel left a will ... in the will Daniel confirmed his abode in Woodhouses, Frodsham and his brother-in-law Samuel Waine as executor. Son John (-) and his daughters Elizabeth and Margaret. And son Daniel with no issue identified ... this was Nathaniel's father Daniel (1676-1760).

Daniel's son John Milner (-) married Margaret Dutton in 1690 they had three daughters Elizabeth (-) Margaret (-) and Mary (-) ...

Margaret Edwards (Milner) of Woodhouses, Frodsham ... Admon was granted in 1734. A Letter of Administration was granted to give an executor the authority to administer an estate after someone had died intestate, although there may have been other circumstances.

Daniel's younger brother Thomas Milner (-1736) was a Yeoman of Helsby. Thomas left a will identifying some of his family ... including his wife Ellen ... and ... Daniel, Sarah, Thomas, John, Mary & Nathaniel, sons & daughters of Daniel Milner of Acton, yeoman!

father Daniel Milner (1676-1760) of Acton, Gentleman. Married Sarah Barrow (1675-1744) on August 5th 1697. A will proved in 1778 identified - his late wife, daughters Sarah, Mary & Rachel & sons Daniel & Nathaniel.

Sarah, wife of Daniel, died in Weaverham on May 30th 1744.

On Feb 23rd 2008 the Liverpool Daily Post announced the sale of an ancient farmhouse in Acton Bridge -

'The property, Hall Green Farm, Cliff Road, dates from the late 1600s and was originally a farm building.
The black & white wattle & daub house in Acton Bridge, Northwich, dates back to 1674. And this grade II listed building is one of only a few remaining period properties in the country to contain fully surviving naive murals painted directly on to the walls. Similar works of art can be found in Blenheim Palace.
'The house has two fully preserved murals, as well as a partially surviving one on the walls of one of the upstairs bedrooms; they are protected under the house's listed status', says seller Steve Fishwick.
Each of the murals depicts a different landmark from the local area. One of the complete murals shows a carriage in the hall and grounds of the now demolished Marbury Hall, and another shows a winter scene of Frodsham marsh at the foot of Helsby Rock. The partially surviving image shows a cliff top scene believed to be of Neston.
Nobody knows who painted the murals but the first owners of the house were the Milner family and it is thought that the mural paintings were commissioned by Daniel Milner between 1725 and 1740'.

brother Daniel Milner (1698-1779) of Acton. Born in Weaverham on August 29th 1698. An extensive will identified - brother Nathaniel & six sons and brother Thomas & a son John.

Nephew Nathaniel was doing well in Tarbock where in 1785 Lord Sefton contributed £57 to the land tax of £145; but running second was Nathaniel Milner, with £5!

In 1774 Daniel was a subscriber to the pious writings on providence by his local vicar, Thomas Hunter. Some of his fellow subscribers were big in the locality and included his mate, William Gibson from down the road ...

brother Thomas Milner (1705-67) born in Weaverham on January 24th 1705, son of Daniel. Thomas of Acton married Martha Antrobus (-) in Frodsham in 1733. Son John (1735-1820) of Acton. Son Nathaniel (1737-) born in Weaverham July 25th 1737. Son Daniel (1739-71) born in Weaverham March 9th 1739.

Son John (1735-1820) sired a famous lineage ... see below ...

Thomas died in 1767. Thomas of Tarbock, Lancashire, left a will dated 1761.

brother John Milner (1710-) Born in Weaverham on January 16th 1710, son of Daniel.

Nathaniel Milner (1717-97) of Hall Green, Acton, Weaverham. Born in Farndon? January 19th 1717, son of Daniel. Married Sarah Dennis (1733-66) of Moor at Weaverham on January 1st 1753. Sarah was buried at Weaverham on March 26th 1766, aged 33. A man of considerable property in the county. He had six sons and left an estate to each, four settled in Cheshire. The other two, Daniel & James became Manchester merchants. 
Buried at Weaverham in 1797, aged 79. The Monthly Magazine reported Nathaniel's death in 1798.

Nathaniel's will identified the family and properties -

John (1753-1810) of Acton. Born in Weaverham on January 1st 1754, son of Nathaniel. Indenture of 1786 sum £1,000. Married Sarah (-1830). Two daughters Mary & Ann. John left a will. Daughter Mary (1789-1856) was buried at Weaverham in 1856, aged 67. Daughter Ann married cousin Nathaniel Dennis Milner (1786-1878).
Buried at Weaverham in 1811, aged 57. The sale of John Milner's house at Kitchen Croft was reported in 1820.

Sarah died at Acton in 1830. Mary died in Acton in 1856.

Nathaniel (1758-1837) of Moor Hall & Warrington. Born in Weaverham on April 6th 1758, 2nd son of Nathaniel. His son and heir was Nathaniel Dennis (1786-1878), first cousin of Nathaniel (-1841), see James below. A 2nd son, William Cawley (1795-) married Eugenie Alphonsine in Geneva in 1875.

Nathaniel Dennis Milner (1786-1878) Esq of Moore, found circumstances most propitious. When his dad died in 1837 he naturally inherited the estate but he also married his cousin Ann and ended up with the states of John (1783-1810) & Mary (1789-1856). And there's more ... his uncles Thomas (1763-1827) & Dennis (1766-1838) both died without issue and their shares of Milner wealth ended up with Nathaniel Dennis ... ! ... he did well with his wealth, he was concerned with 'great advantage to the district', amply proved by his active involvement in the Daresbury Farmer's Club which was not only improving the land but also encouraging industry ... the Acton Bridge riparian factory site could not have wished for a better landlord! 

Nathaniel Dennis & Ann had an eldest son Dennis (1825-88) who was remembered, as a young buck, for an escapade on 'pleasure excursion' in Runcorn which was unfortunately reported in the local paper. A few years later he respectably married Frances, younger daughter of William Stubs Esq of the Elms, Acton Grange. Dennis became a successful London solicitor after initial gainful employment with Messrs Wagstaff, Marsh & Barratt, Warrington. Dennis died at Beel House, Amersham, Bucks in 1888 ... published in the Yorkshire Gazette, confirming the family links to the county?

James (1760-) Born in Weaverham on January 30th 1760, son of Nathaniel. Merchant of Manchester then Patricroft. He lived on his Patricroft patrimony, and was buried with his wife Mary in the cancel of Eccles church. Mary was the daughter of Thomas Richardson of Pendlebury House. Sixth son Nathaniel (-1841) was a borough reeve of Patricroft and died in Eccles.

Thomas (1763-1827) of Dennis's at Moor. Born in Weaverham on April 21st 1763, son of Nathaniel. Buried at Weaverham in 1827, aged 64.

Daniel (1764-97) Born in Weaverham on October 25th 1764, son of Nathaniel. Resident in Ardwick, and died in Hamburg. In 1791 Daniel married to Frances Barrow (1771-1811) by licence. At the time of the wedding Daniel was a fustian manufacturer living in Martinscroft, Warrington. Josh Ryle was a witness. Daniel & Frances then moved to Manchester. The Universal Trades Directories list the business at 2 Market Lane. They had four children; sons Nathaniel (-)  and John Barrow (1793-) daughters Frances (-) and Elizabeth Barrow (1797-1830).

Elizabeth married William Henry Lombe (1788-1824) in 1818 in Liverpool, who was a bookseller in the High Street in Worcester. They had two children William Henry (1820-) and Frances Louisa (1822-). William died in 1824 in Liverpool and Elizabeth remarried to William Stuwart (-) and they emigrated to Australia in 1830. Tragically Elizabeth died on the journey aboard the ship 'Bombay' / 'James' en route to Perth.

Dennis (1766-1838) of Acton, Northwich. Born in Weaverham on March 26th 1766, son of Nathaniel. Died at Acton and buried at Weaverham in 1838, aged 71.

The Monument inscriptions from St Mary's, Weaverham helped to configure the local family -

Daniel Milner (1739-71) of Tarbock, Lancashire, aged  34 years, 22/12/1771. (grave no. 430 ref. old 312) Son of Thomas, baptised in Weaverham, March 9th 1739.
Thomas Milner (1763-1827) of Acton, aged 64 years, 4th son of Nathaniel Milner, 27/4/1827. (grave no. 875 ref. old 298)
Dennis Milner (1767-1838) of Acton, aged 71 years, youngest son of Nathaniel, 10/2/1838. (grave no. 875 ref. old 298)
Nathaniel Milner (1718-97) of Hall Green, Acton, aged 79 years, 5/12/1797. (grave no. 876 ref. old 299)
Sarah Milner (1733-66) of Hall Green, Acton, aged 33 years, wife of Nathaniel, 25/3/1766. (grave no. 876 ref. old 299)
John Milner (1753-1810) of Acton, aged 57 years, eldest son of Nathaniel & Sarah, 4/4/1810. (grave no. 876 ref. old 299)
Sarah Milner (1786-1806) of Acton, aged 20 years, eldest daughter of Nathaniel & Sarah, 27/6/1806. (grave no. 876 ref. old 299)
Mary Milner (1789-1856) of Acton, aged 67 years, daughter, 25/3/1856. (grave no. 876 ref. old 299)
Rachel Milner (1791-1804) of Acton, aged 13 years, 3rd daughter of Nathaniel & Sarah, 3/12/1804. (grave no. 876 ref. old 299)

The Crowton Chapel also contains memorials to the members of the local families. Over the vestry door is a memorial to Lieut Aston, who 'died the death of the brave on the field of Waterloo', and on the north wall just outside the Chapel Screen is a copper plate recording the death of Daniel Milner, ancestor of the late Viscount Milner, with a very eulogistic inscription which concludes, 'Such virtues, reader, are the more valuable because they are rare; that they might not die with the dead they are here recorded; not through ostentation, but for thy contemplation and practice'.

There were lots of Milners around ...

(Thomas Milner b Frodsham March 30th 1576 and July 16th 1584 - Thomas Milner b Lymm 1613, son of Thomas - Thomas Milner b Weaverham January 1614 - Thomas Milner b Heswell 1622, son of Willym - Thomas Milner b Frodsham Oct 10th 1624, son of Jo.
Other children of John @ Frodsham - Sarah (1621-), Thomas (1624-), Daniel (1627-), Richard (1636-), Elizabeth (1642-), John (1660-), Richard (1662-), Anne (1666-), Ann (1690-), Mary (1693-), Richard (1695-), Elizabeth (1696-), Martha (1697-), Margaret (1702-), ... ... Elizabeth Barrow Milner (1797-1830) who married William Lombe ( From the well known Lombe family of Liverpool ) she died on the voyage to Australia on the sailing ship 'James')

 

Nathaniel & Dennis Milner declared their support for the Cheshire declaration reported in the Chester Chronicle 1835.

The Cheshire DeclarationEvolution, a prolonged process of cumulative growth. The modern individual is foolish but the inherited rules and institutions embody the cumulative knowledge and experience of preceding generations. Civilization is not the creation of the reasoning mind, but the unintended outcome of the spontaneous play of innumerable creative minds. An inherited immanent moral law to which all valid positive law must conform.

Lord Melbourne, Mentor to Queen Victoria, 'Why not leave it alone?' to avoid 'a heap of modern additions, interpolations, facts and fictions'. 

The whig principles of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 were alive and well ...

 John Locke -

'freedom to have a standing rule to live by, common to every one of that society, a liberty to follow one's own will in all things, where that rule prescribes not; and not to be subject to the inconstant, uncertain, arbitrary will of another man. Whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth is bound to govern by established standing laws promulgated and known to the people and not by extemporary decrees. Even the legislature has no absolute arbitrary power, but is bound to dispense justice, while the supreme executor of the law has no will, no power, but that of the law. The ultimate aim is to limit the power and moderate the dominion of every part and member of that society'.

Weaverham TithesNathaniel & Dennis Milner declared their support for the commutation of tithes in Weaverham as reported in the Chester Chronicle 1836.

The Act for the Commutation of Tithes was passed in 1836.  This Act replaced the ancient system of payment of tithes in kind with monetary payments and substituted a variable monetary payment, 'corn rent', for any existing tithe in kind. Surveys were made and maps produced of the areas affected. The owner, tenant, area, name, description, state of cultivation, rent charge payable and the tithe owner were listed.

The tithe maps for Acton Bridge & Weaverham identified the owners of land around 1840 and included Nathaniel & Dennis Milner ...

 

Nathaniel's nephew John certainly stirred the pot, his branch of the family were movers and left significant marks on the local history of salt, The Weaver Navigation, Brunner Mond & Co, the Quakers and the Labour Party ...

John Milner (1735-1820), a Yeoman of Acton, married Catherine Clare (-), his cousin from Great Budworth in 1773 by licence.  Daniel Milner (younger brother) & Thomas Clare were witnesses.

John left an important will, dated 1820, which indentified the Milner branch which was destined for Hartford Hall. Executrix, daughter in law Ann Milner of Liverpool. Executor, Samuel Blain of Liverpool, merchant. Sworn by people commonly called Quakers. Four children twins John (1776-), Daniel (1776-), baptised in Weaverham, & Thomas (1777-1807), & Sarah (-).

The Chester Chronicle reported that John was in trouble in 1808, 'an opulent farmer' had been smuggling salt! And what was the source of the trouble that John junior and Daniel were immersed in, with a raft of others, in 1817 which landed them in the debtors gaol in Chester? And did this fiasco lead to the liquidation of their estate?

John was buried in Weaverham in 1820 aged 85 years, and his Acton estate up for sale - 'The lots are well wooded, and watered, and in a very respectable neighbourhood, a fine fertile and sporting country, abounding in game, distant from Northwich four miles, Frodsham 5 and one mile to Acton Bridge upon the River Weaver, on which a packet sail daily from Northwich to Weston Point where it meets the steam packets from Liverpool' ...

Thomas & Ann MilnerThomas Milner (1777-1807), son of John was born on 30th October 1777 in Weaverham, married Anne Smith (1776-1852) of Liverpool in 1803. Thomas & Ann had three children; John Philip (1804-), William Edward (1805-51) & Ann (1807-. The children were all Christened at Newington Chapel, Renshaw Street, Liverpool ... built in 1618 this was the oldest nonconformist church in the Liverpool.

Ann died in Grappenhall in 1852.

William Edward Milner (1806-51) married Jane Fell (1813-47) in Warrington in 1836. Jane was the daughter of Joseph & Elizabeth Fell. William & Jane had six children, their son Edward John became a director of Brunner Mond & Co in 1881.  

William Edward Milner was a shareholder in the 'Manchester & Liverpool District Banking Company' in 1838.

Jane died in Warrington in 1847and William died in 1851 after a tragic accident; they were both Quakers.

Edward MilnerEdward John Milner (1837-1902) of Firgrove, Latchford then Hartford Hall, Northwich. Educated at Tulketh Hall, Preston and Bootham School, York. JP for Warrington; County Councillor for Northwich; Vice Chairman of the River Weaver Trust and Chairman of the Northwich Salt Compensation Board.

Edward married Rosa Louise Stromeyer (1858-1949), daughter of Charles Stromeyer of Hamburg. Edward Milner died August 21st 1902. Edward had four sons including Dennis (1892-1956) ...

Nigel McKendrick, Edward & Rosa's great grandson is currently busy researching Edward John's pedigree which includes a superb photo of Thomas Milner (1777-1807), Edward John's grandfather.

John I Watts confirmed a little recognised truth of the industrial revolution in England, a problem which confronted B M & Co in 1873 -

'the problem of converting an interesting chemical experiment into a lucrative commercial process had baffled all the earlier manufacturers'.

 W F L Dick noted that -

'The search for land continued in vain until Edward Milner, a friendly salt manufacturer with a works at Anderton, suggested that land at Winnington might be suitable. One day late in June, Milner drove John Brunner and Ludwig Mond in his trap to visit his small works. As they stood upon the edge of the high bank looking out over the oak trees at Winnington Park, Ludwig Mond said, 'this is the spot'. The land was freehold and belonged to Lord Stanley of Alderley. It had a long frontage to the navigable River Weaver and therefore easy access to Liverpool docks and it had a railway connection to Cheshire Lines'.

W J Reader commented,

'Milner discharged managerial functions, mostly in connection with property'.

However original letters and enclosures from John Brunner to Edward, relating to affairs at Winnington & Sandbach works, and within the alkali industry in general; and a letter from Parr's bank, Northwich related to advances to the firm relating to a scheme to build a salt works on the Preesall salt deposit in Lancashire, in 1883; indicate Edward was heavily involved in all aspects of the business. DIC/BM 7/11 22 Aug 1885-1815 Nov 1888.

Brunner Mond & Co LtdWhen B M & Co Ltd was formed in 1881 the first Board of Directors comprised John Crosfield (Chairman), E Milner, C M Holland, J T Brunner, L Mond with T H Fogden (Secretary). John Crosfield, of course, represented the customers. Edward Milner & Charles Mensies Holland represented the 'investors', as W J Reader noted -

'new capital came chiefly from investors living locally, nearly all of them in Lancashire & Cheshire'

Parrs Bank in Warrington provided the working capital ... Edward Milner was on the ball ...

There were important economic principles underlying these Milner initiatives.

The Milners were firstly traders who invested their profits in landed estates for ongoing security of the family. But things didn't stagnate in idle rent seeking activities, they exploited their new resources through ongoing investment in technological innovations which fed the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution -

investment in the productivity of their farms increased the surpluses to feed the cities by improved husbandry (wool) & cultivation (crops)

as merchants they organised distribution & markets, locally & internationally

from under their land they extracted salt, added value by refining and traded internationallyy

industrial activity was unleashed as they opened up the Aire & Calder Canal and River Weaver Navigation

the fiasco of price fixing & monopoly at the Salt Union was avoided as they promoted & partnered Brunner Mond in innovative high value chemical manufacturing

A proud record; the Milners moved with a trader's nous, they avoided the cul-de-sac of rent seeking and discovered new added value as comparative advantage relentlessly moved ... every problem became an opportunity for the agile ...

Dennis Milner (1892-1956) of 404 Finchley Road, married Mabel in 1914.

Dennis wrote with Bernard Pickard in 1920.

Milner's State Bonus - In the same year, the young engineer, Quaker and Labour Party member, Dennis Milner (1892-1956), published jointly with his wife Mabel a short pamphlet entitled 'Scheme for a State Bonus' (1918). What they argued for, using an eclectic series of arguments, was the introduction of an income paid unconditionally on a weekly basis to all citizens of the United Kingdom. Pitched at 20% of GDP per capita, the 'State bonus' should make it possible to solve the problem of poverty, particularly acute in the aftermath of the war. As everyone has a moral right to means of subsistence, any obligation to work enforced through the threat of a withdrawal of these means is ruled out. Milner subsequently elaborated the proposal in a book published by a respectable publisher under the title 'Higher Production by a Bonus on National Output' (1920). Many of the arguments that played a central role in later discussions can be found in this book ... from the unemployment trap to labour market flexibility, from low rates of take up to the ideal complement of profit sharing; but the emphasis is on the 'productivist' case. The state bonus can even be vindicated on grounds of efficiency alone. Milner's proposal was enthusiastically backed by fellow Quaker Bertram Pickard, supported by the short-lived State Bonus League (under whose banner Milner took part in a national election), discussed at the 1920 British Labour Party conference and definitively rejected the following year.

It seemed the productivist ideas of hard work, honesty & thrift are beyond religious divides and party politics - Dennis Milner was a Quaker & Labour Party member.

 

Miscellaneous Milner snippets ...

The Acton Bridge Parish Rooms.
The owners of the land on which the Parish Room was to be built were William Milner of Chateau d'Isques, Pont de Briques in the Department of Pas de Calais in the Republic of France, and Reginald Ernest Dennis Milner of Sutton Cottage, Hounslow in the County of Middlesex, a Captain in His Majesty's Army. They appear to have 'given' The Council of the Parish of Acton in the Ecclesiastical Parish of Weaverham, a piece or parcel of land, upon which the building intended to be used as and for the purposes of a Parish Room by the Parishioners had been built. The land, 332 square yards, together with the building was conveyed to the Council for the benefit of the residents of Acton in perpetuity.

The Milner Church Institute, Moore.
A service of Holy Communion is held every Thursday morning at 9.30 in the Milner Church Institute in Runcorn Road, Moore. Access to the car park is in Moss Lane.
The 'Milner' was founded in 1907 by the late Mary Milner of Moore 'for the religious purposes of the Church of England and for recreational activities.' It is a registered charity (number 1078366) separate from but closely associated with Daresbury Church and is managed by Trustees (who must be communicant members of the Church of England) assisted by a Management Committee composed of representatives of the various groups which use the building which include a pre-school play group, Brownies, WI, Earl of Stamford Morris dancers, whist, Over 60's, Keep-fit and Pilates.
It is in fact, the village hall of Moore. The Milner is a building of character ideal for the holding of meetings and private parties. It has a licence for public entertainment, music and dancing but patrons must make their own applications for drinks licences.

Milner estates (c1,100 acres) in Acton, Weaverham, Stretton & Moore, with plans, were sold in 1918.

Gamiel Milner (-) was a Quaker iron master of Attercliffe, Thurlston cotton spinner at Hoyle Mill.

H Milner & Co, 87 Mosley Street, Pendlebury. Graces Guide 1891.

Braithwaite Milner & Co, New Road, London. Loco builders 1836.

Supra Thomas Milner of Torbock, gentleman 1767 - Original Wills "G-P" 1767 FHL British Film 88800.

Marriages in Frodsham - 1681 Mary Milner to John Barlow - 1684 Elizabeth Milner to John Wilkinson - 1685 Thomas Milner to Sarah Fluit - 1685 Thomas Milner to Anne Lloyd - 1685 Samuel Milner to Catherine Cottingham @ Ness - 1687 Eleanor Milner to Edward Churchman - 1690 John Milner to Mary Dutton. 

After the death of his first wife, Gamaliel Milner, Attercliffe, married on 6th Dec 1659 to Isabel Jenkinson. They had 3 children -
Tobias b. 1st Oct 1661
Daniel b. 14th Oct 1663
Michael b. 7th Sept 1665 m. Sarah Jeffery of Tyers Hill 18th Nov 1686.

William Milner of Chateau d'Isques, Pont de Briques in the Department of Pas de Calais in the Republic of France, and Reginald Ernest Dennis Milner of Sutton Cottage Hounslow in the County of Middlesex, a Captain in His Majesty's Army.

Marriage: 22nd May 1808 St Oswald, Winwick, Lancashire, England.
Nathaniel Milner - of this Parish
Ellen Clare - of this Parish
Witness: Gilbert Marsh; Thos Walker

Elizabeth Barrow Milner (1797-1830) who married William Lombe ( From the well known Lombe family of Liverpool ) she died on the voyage to Australia on the sailing ship 'James'.

DCH/E/150 - Late 16th Century - Abstracts of Grants (c. 1315 - dating by Bulkeley parties). 1 William son of Robert of Halhton to William of Bulkeley the younger, of all the land, moor, marsh and water in Halton within the specified boundaries. N/D. 2 John son of John the Milner of Halhton and Angharet his wife, to the said William and Margaret his wife, of their share of the above lands. N/D. 3 William Burndeleigh to the said William and Margaret, of lands and tenements in Halton. N/D. 4 Robert of Halhton to Robert of Bulkeley, of all the lands which he had or might have enclosed between the stipulated boundaries of Bonbury, Beeston, Peckforton, Bulkeley and Cholmundeley. N/D. Paper.
Late 16th Century

DCH/F/588 - 1676 - LEASE for 3 lives by Rt. Hon. Thomas Earl Rivers to Richard Milner of Overton, Lordship of Fradsham, yeoman --- a messuage and tenement with appurts. in OVERTON wherein the lessee dwells and 6 cowgates in the gt. pasture in FRADSHAM cd. Lordship Marsh; for lives of sd. Richard Milner, Thomas and Richard his sons, at annual rent of 16/3, 1 rent capon or 12d. and heriot of best beast or good or 4 marks.
Cons. surrender of former lease and £47. Seal and signature cut away. Parchment.

DCH/F/260 - 1676/77 - LEASE for 3 lives by Rt Hon Thomas Earl Rivers to Daniel Milner of Woodhouses in the parish of Frodsham, yeoman --- 1/6 part of the close or great pasture in Frodsham called Twyne or Tweene Mills etc as the same now lies within and without the Copp of the sd pasture to the River Weaver, cntng 50 acres in the whole of the large measure, reserving to the sd Earl liberty of way from the land called the Busipoole over the same premises; for lives of William Blinston of Burtonwood (Co Land), yeoman, and William Witter and Robert Witter, sons of William Witter, late of Frodsham, at an annual rent of 5/5 for all heriots, services and demands. Cons surrender of former lease and £60. Seal, red, armorial. Parchment.
1676/77.

DCH/F/598 - 1684 - LEASE for 2 lives in reversion by Rt Hon Tho [...] Rivers to Richard Done of Overton, Lordship of Frodsham [...] yeoman --- a cottage or small tenement in OVERTON now [...] holding of sd Richard Done, heretofore cd Hollands [...] and late cd Duttons Cottage, now in possession of the [...] and 1 cowgate in the gt pasture in FRODSHAM cd the [...] Marsh with 26 perches adjoining same heretofore parcel [...] Thomas Milners Tenement; to hold from death of sd. [...] Milner, for lives of the sd Richard Done and Thomas [...] son, at annual rent of 6/6½, 1 rent hen or 6d and [...] 20/-. Cons. £11. Seal, red, illegible. Parchment.

DCH/F/731 - 1691/2 - LEASE for 3 lives by Rt Hon Thomas Earl Rivers to Mary Fleetwood of Netherton, widow --- a close cd. Swinlake, the lane or way leading to great Synipoole cd. Synipoole Lane and 1 day math of mowing heretofore 1 gate in a close cd. little Synipoole, all in NETHERTON, FRODSHAM, now/late in tenure of the lessee; for lives of Mary Fleetwood and Martha Fleetwood, daughters of the sd. Mary, and Thomas Milner son of Thomas Milner of Woodhouses, yeoman, at annual rent of 1/8, 1 rent hen and heriot of 33/4. Cons surrender of former lease (no DCH/F/726) and £7. Seal, red, illegible. Parchment

DCH/F/881 - 1696/7 - a lease for 3 lives by Rt Hon Richard Earl Rivers to John Harrison of Woodhouses, Lordship of Frodsham, yeoman - a messuage or tenement with appurts in WOODHOUSES, late in possession of James Huson decd; for lives of sd John Harrison, John Harrison his son and John Milner, son of Daniell Milner of Woodhouses.

DCH/F/612 - 1718/19 - LEASE for 3 lives by Rt Hon Robert Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer (trustee) to Catherine Fluitt --- a messuage or tenement with appurts. in OVERTON anciently in possession of of William Hill and now of the lessee, and 6 cowgates in the great pasture in FRODSHAM cd the Lordship Marsh and 26 perches of ground in OVERTON near the cottage anciently belonging to one Richard Taylor; for lives of Thomas Milner, sd Catherine Fluitt and Randle Fluitt her son, at annual rent of 16/3, 1 rent hen or 12d and heriot of best beast or good or 4 marks.
Cons surrender of former lease (no DCH/F/597) and £79-3-4.
Seal, red, crest, a unicorn's head. Parchment.

DCH/F/450 - 1747 - LEASE for 3 lives by Hon James Cholmondeley of Rocksavage Esq. to Thomas Harrison the younger of Frodsham, husbandman --- a cottage in FRODSHAM with 20 perches of land thereto belonging adjoining a yard called Clough's yard or backside, and heretofore parcel of a messuage of one Richard Gamons; for lives of Thomas Harrison, surviving life in a former lease (no. DCH/F/349), Thomas Harrison the lessee, and Ellen Milner, at annual rent of 1/- and heriot of best beast or good or 10/-. Cons. surrender of sd former lease and £11. Seal, red, a man's head. Parchment.

 DIC/BM 8/13 - Miscellaneous original in-letters addressed to T Winstanley (Time Office, Winnington works), chiefly requesting money, employment etc; with a series of letters from Rosa Milner, of Hartford Manor, relating to her charitable work among poor employees and the Northwich poor in general 1903-1909.

PROB 11/1382/200 - John Milner, Woolstapler of Halifax, Yorkshire left a will in 1802.

John Milner (1628–1702) was an English clergyman, known as a nonjuring minister, scholar and opponent of John Locke.

William Milner (1803-50) was Halifax grocer and merchant who became a bookseller and publisher.

 

Any corrections and additional information gratefully received contact john p birchall

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