Vote with your Feet and Join a Club of your Choice

The Case for Business is Evolutionary Economics

The Calculus of Consent


Moral Sentiments

Deep down in the human skull there lurks an independent spirit relentlessly seeking the discovery & accumulation of 'survival know how'; the synergies of specialisation & scale. In the same way as the genes work in groups to build organisms, so too folk work together in teams to build institutions & cultures. In this way the human gene pool builds an ever widening network of interdependences which helps not only kith & kin, but also friends & associates ... and even strangers ... one whole throbbing shebang & caboodle.

Evolutionary Diversity

Such striving for survival feeds a ground swell of suspicions against the impositions of Bishops, Princes, Generals & bureaucrats ... who all have different ideas about what is best for our welfare ... and until someone fathoms out a way to stop evolution ... different folk, at different times, in different places, behave differently and have different ideas ... diversity is both the outcome of evolution and necessary for the process ... or is that a tautology? ... one size can never fit all ... think about it?

Survival Know How

The discovery & accumulation of 'survival know how' is the way of the world, the way of folk and the way of business. Darwin called it natural selection; the outcome of interactions. Folk are interactive social beings. Adam the Smith explained both the 'moral sentiments' which underpin social interactions and the 'synergies' resulting from the interactions.

Trial & Error

We are all ignorant about the unknowable future ... no one can intelligently design success ... but Darwin's insight explained how folk can learn and contribute to 'survival know how' by experimental trial & error. In this way we learn by failure not by design. The intentions of 'the powers that be' become mere experiments because behavioural interactions always involve the different responses of different others, making the unfolding of the tale unknowable. Bishops, Princes, Generals & bureaucrats, like everybody else, can only contribute in the same way ... by experiments ... the Greeks called it heuristics.

Experts Disagree

Alas 'the powers that be' often seek to command & control economic activity 'as if' they possessed privileged access to 'survival know how' ... 'as if' they had a divine right ... the truth is the experts disagree and failure is anathema.

Democracy was never about voting so 51% imposed their taxes on 49% but rather about the protection of minorities from tyranny & oppression.

Meanwhile Joe Sixpack beavering away at the coalface suffers a double whammy -

'the powers that be' derive their 'power' from the 'legal' confiscation of other folk's resources ... often through 'a rigged system of violence, corruption & waste' ... and

this elitist top down 'command & control' hubris distorts & impedes the bottom up business of business.

Hard Work, Honesty & Thrift

Ingenious folk are always resilient and will always try for longevity and go for lots of thriving youngsters; folk will always try to do their deals and discover the synergies. It is the deals of folk that will always discover a price & a value which clears markets ... after all nobody is happy to pay for expensive gluts & queues.

Lord Melbourne told the Queen,

'for Gods sake leave well alone'

This was not a plea for idleness but rather a plea for the freedom to beaver away; a plea for hard work, honesty and thrift.

The institutions of Liberal Democracy evolved from the failures of the alternatives.

Winston Churchill told the people,

'Liberal Democracy is the worst form of government apart from the alternatives that have been tried from time to time'.

Ingenious folk nurture more & larger associations ... more & more synergies of specialisation & scale.

Parasites & Predators

But don't get it wrong ... there is a sting in the tale of enterprise ... as soon as there are stocks of goodies from the synergies there are opportunities for parasites & predators ... and such parasites & predators themselves will evolve ... it's an arms race ...

'Money' perhaps the most flexible goodie of all ... is easier to thieve than stocks -

'why do you rob banks, Mr Smith?', 

'that is where the money is, Sir!'.

Institutions & rules which provide some immunity from parasites & predators ... will differentially survive.

In the early days the terrorists threw their evil weight around and death & destruction was commonplace ... then later the law courts and the ballot box provided an cheaper alternative to violence and liberal democracy emerged ... but today some of the 'checks & balances' on 'power' have been subverted & eroded by the panic & knee jerk hysteria of the 49% who lost and the arrogant hubris of the 51% who won. The principle of subsidiarity for the institutions of civil society ... the churches, the clubs, the associations, the companies ... has been lost following this hysteria and hubris associated with 'voting'. Has Democracy itself become a licence for 51% to screw 49%?

Restraint of Trade & Restrictive Practices

In an attempt to avoid abject failures  all manner of ‘Restraints of Trade’ and ‘Restrictive Practices’ have been erected by intelligent designers ... always in the name of 'improved designs' intended to confront parasites & predators ... but such restraints & restrictions always inhibit the lawful freedoms of Joe & Jane Sixpack and their mates to go about their lawful business and discover their own improvements. 

But the dice are loaded against the parasites & predators ... deep down in the skull the moral sentiments of Adam the Smith, the innate feelings 'resentment of cheats' and 'fairness of shares' pushes human behaviour towards economic cooperation, the synergies of specialisation & scale and positive sums rather than a downward spiral of beggar thy neighbour and zero sums. It is 'as if' the genes do cost/benefit analysis and know it is profitable to cooperate.

The unknowable outcomes of evolution need not be characterised by 'nature red in tooth & claw' but rather by a better description ... the evolution of evolvability ... and more social interactions full of cooperative synergies.

Cooperative Synergies

Don't get your knickers in a twist of misunderstanding ... parasites & predators will survive but cannot 'win' zero sum games when they are up against those who learn from positive sum games ... those who deal in synergies have more surviving babies ... the dice are loaded ... think about it?

'Liberal Democracy' is not about freedom to harm others 2-2=0 but rather freedom to deal in synergies 2+2=5 ...

freedoms to vote with your feet and join a club of your choice

Free Market InnovationThe Case for Business = Evolutionary Economics

Business 'works' only because businesses that don't 'work' go bankrupt.

The case for business is underpinned by the science of evolutionary economics and rests on the diversity of lawful free trade and the natural selection of associated trade synergies.

Lawful free trade is a simple rule of thumb - 

all trade between consenting adults and their companies of choice must be lawful free trade to avoid costly distortions, imbalances and gluts & queues.

Lawful free trade is justified by two fundamental ideas of economics -

synergies of specialisation & scale == David Ricardo's comparative advantage

market prices minimise costs == Adam Smith's supply & demand

The institutions of Liberal Democracy evolved and nurtured lawful free trade by the protection of -

individual human rights and the choices of folk & minorities and

synergies of specialisation & scale from trade & associations 

Human economic activity discovers & accumulates 'know how' from the trial & error of natural selection == scientific methodology.

The necessary diversity for natural selection results from the individual experiments of cooperating folk == vote with your feet and join a club of your choice.

Don't get it wrong ... business learns from mistakes not from intelligent designs. 

Don't get it wrong ... thriving businesses interact with enabling environments including the institutions of state - 

Laws of the Land, Common Law & UDHR, morality & cooperation emerge from biological & cultural inheritances based on 'fairness of shares and resentment of cheats' rather than from the arrogance of intelligent design, political correctness & regulatory distortions.
NB Malarkey & tomfoolery of the 'powers that be' == command & control of human moral behaviour

Opportunities & Profitable Projects, bottom up discovery & accumulation is a trial & error process of wealth creation in commercial cities. Specialisation grows from subsidiarity & initiative == scale grows from Joe & Jane Sixpack, to clubs & companies, to countries & states, to UK & USA == 'survival know how' is growing @ 3% compound as a science knowledge base, a growing launch pad for further growth == compounding opportunities as a positive sum game == 'jobs, jobs, jobs' == 'education, education, education' == exchange trade == economic growth == high value job vacancies == immigration of high value skills == tax revenues from the synergies embedded in hard work, honesty & thrift == funding the 'civilised' Welfare State.
NB Malarkey & tomfoolery in business == bankruptcy.

Institutional Immunity from Parasites & Predators, top down impositions of costs & regulations from Bishops, Princes, Generals & bureaucrats == rent seekers & free riders are parasites & predators == confronted by constitutional/institutional checks & balances on 'powers that be' == folk learn and it is difficult to bribe interest groups for votes with tax revenues from others ... such an arbitrary zero sum game fails.
NB Malarkey & tomfoolery of Bishops, Princes, General & bureaucrats == bribery & corruption & rigged elections as 'excess burdens' reduce output and reduce real wages in 'Zombies'.

But don't get it wrong ... we're biased ... business learns from mistakes not from intelligent designs.

But as soon as wealth stocks appear parasites & predators appear and must be confronted.

Parasites & Predators 

Folk learn Rules of Thumb == 'tit for tat' == the evolution of cooperation, the dice are loaded and institutions gain some immunity from parasites & predators -

'if it's free put me down for two please' == economic immigrants seek welfare state benefits without paying the premium ...  and

'turkeys never vote for Christmas' == the 'powers that be' are locked into their attempts at intelligent design ... what else can they do ... admit ignorance?

Top down command & control fails but bottom up solutions are the business of business -

don’t vote for them it will only encourage them ... stop ... top down, public imposition of arbitrary prices & regulations ...

so vote with your feet and join a club of your choice ... try ... bottom up, private voluntary experimental initiatives of clubs ...

The tyrannised & oppressed continue to 'vote with their feet and join a club of their choice'

Choosing in GroupsClubsThe Nature of Clubs & Companies

 Different folk, in different places, at different times, with different people, interact differently with different results.

Diverse Clubs with their own rules seek to discover synergies from specialisation & scale through 'natural cooperation'.

Characteristics -

voluntary membership - like minded folk join the club of their choice, pay their subscriptions, accept the rules & exit possibilities; free riders, parasites & predators are excluded by ostracism & expulsion. Prior acceptance of rules is the effective way of minimising the costs of squabbles, disagreements and bloody violence.

rules of procedures - constitutions define the umpire and procedures for changing the rules ... and if the umpires decision is not accepted there are alternative clubs

trust & exit - contracts are impossible to fully specify long term. Slippage, backsliding & drift in the rules demand 'amendments' possibilities.

The vast majority of associations in civil society can be private & voluntary. Very few things apart from defence of territory are 'public'. The nature of the state, as the custodian of the power to defend territory, although voluntarily delegated initially ... such power in the end corrupts and monolithic Leviathans start to impose arbitrary rules on clubs of choice. 

The principle of 'subsidiarity' keeps the size of the group in line with the size of the public good.

In this way Washington elites began to use the Jefferson elections to fight over scraps as 51% lorded it over 49% and seized tax revenues and the power over armies as Commanders in Chief. Elections were 'uncontested', as one faction of Washington fought with another. Liberty suffered when faced with such Darwinian inequality.

Business & market failure is natural selection == competitive differential survival == bankruptcy .

State & monopoly failure is intelligent design == price fixing & regulation == zombies.

Berlin Wall 1989The Failure of Intelligent Design = Anti Business Rhetoric

Long after the rhymes of history were being played out in globalisation, the Berlin Wall, 9/11, the 2008 financial crisis and Brexit & Trump ... some folk still clung on to ancient myths ... just like all the old Bishops, Princes, Generals and bureaucrats 'this time was different' ...  where economic success was deemed to be the result of intelligent design by skillful draughtsman ... very few remembered the long necked giraffes and very few explained how businesses learn from failure.

And the Queen said,

'Why didn't anyone see the financial crisis coming'?

And again,

'Why didn't anyone see Brexit and Trump coming'?

But we all know Robbie Burns was right,

'The best laid schemes of mice and men often go awry'!

Of course there was failure ... there must be failure ... that was the only way ignorant folk learn.

But intelligent design and the anti business rhetoric was a very plausible idea ... an idea as old as the first glimmers of self consciousness ... when frightened folk saw Gods behind every tree.

Darwin had a tough task,

'I must be a very bad explainer, I suppose natural selection was a bad term'?

And after 150 years the Darwinian conjecture remains unacceptable to many.

Today 'political correctness', 'managed trade' and arrogant intelligent design still involve 'negotiated' price fixing and more & more regulation which inevitably lead to imbalances & distortions in the Balance Sheets of business & commerce ... and Nation States.

Nobody knows the price which will clear the markets ... the result was the excess costs & wastes of gluts & queues. 

The difficulty with Anti Business Rhetoric was the norm of failure when folk were confronted with unavoidable ignorance. Future outcomes were unknowable in advance, not because of immense complexity but rather because -

mutations must be random for evolution to work = nobody knows the which? where? what? who? when? or how?

nobody can foresee emergent novelty of the future = unintended consequences and 

nobody knows how the flip flopping emotions of other folk will respond to interactions = animal spirits ... 

The Darwinian insight demands thinking about two 'successful' evolutionary experiments -

long neck giraffes were bad news for short necked giraffes and the large human brain was bad news for other apes ... and

differential survival of the large brain over the long neck is an evolutionary experiment that is still being played out ...
and, perhaps, further, the large human brain was bad news for the now extinct ancestral cows ... an evolutionary experiment that has been played out.

Perhaps the arrogance of intelligent design all started with Rousseau's idea of a 'general will'. An impossible idea for Darwin, because evolution produces diversity and no diversity no evolution.

The Bishops, Princes, Generals & bureaucrats made the 'general will' their own and used 'the will of the American people' to justify their impositions and manipulations. At the same time as businesses were experimenting ... and failing ... and going bankrupt ... and learning ... the 'powers that be' continued their intelligent designs -

Price Fixing - 'restraints on trade' & 'restrictive practices' became focused in interest group politics.
Price fixing by monopolistic elites who seize taxes to subsidise their Balance Sheets and perpetuate zombies and avoid the sifting of bankruptcy.

Tax Resources - 'resentment of cheats' & 'fairness of shares' became focused in interest group politics.
Crowd trouble erupts because tax funded 'Leviathan' public services fails as one size never fits all. Tax funding becomes the problem not the solution as 51% have no moral 'right' to tax 49% ... but rather everyone has a moral 'obligation' to protect human rights and minorities.

Gluts & Queues - 'imbalances' escalate as regulated trade & prices became focused in interest group politics.
Chinese & Russian money pours into real estate in San Francisco, London & Cyprus because of the fear of the looting machine.

Unprofitable Projects - 'politically correctness' and 'managed trade' do not measure a surplus after costs; productivity.
Tax is a cost on good gotten gains and you get less good gotten gains?

But don't get it wrong ... price fixing, tax codes, unprofitable projects produce imbalances and gluts & queues and inevitably because the polarising schism in a 51% v. 49% society and gridlock ... how best to drain the swamp of parasites & predators?

The new schism is not Catholic v. Protestant, nor Sunni v. Shiite, nor left v. right, nor socialism v. capitalism ... but rather modern liberalism v. classical liberalism.

Modern liberalism = seize the moral high ground and the legal system to enforce a morality of 'we the American people'. 

But Classical Liberalism has its roots in the Scottish Enlightenment = vote with your feet and join a club of your choice.

New Economics

Emerging Policy = vote with your feet and join a club of your choice

The pro- business model is bottom up subsidiarity as competitive businesses with healthy Balance Sheets wrestle with synergies of specialisation & scale to discover & accumulate survival know how.

Many clubs are necessary diversity for evolution and the understanding of natural selection of outcomes.

Some clubs play positive sum games and choose hard work, honesty & thrift and secure benefits and rainy day funds for the education & the health of family & friends ... and the gene pool!

Strange newcomers and immigrants flock to join the party and the jobs.

Some clubs play a zero some game and choose not to trade specialised skills and suffer low wages/unemployment but fix prices and regulate to produce gluts and queues.

Crowd troublers and emigrants abandon the ship as the rules can't be changed when redistribution is an alternative to education, education, education ... and jobs, jobs, jobs.

The terror of 9/11 and the financial crash of 2008 shook the cosy atmosphere of consensus and globalisation as the rhymes of history confirmed eternal vigilance and two well worn issues which cannot be resolved by 'voting' or 'negotiation' - 

cultural competition as tit for tat behaviour leads to cooperation & synergies, the dice are loaded == Brexit means Brexit

business competition as Balance Sheets must balance, it is illegal for insolvent companies to trade == free trade means free trade  

 Vote with your feet and join a lawful club of your choice == cultural clubs and business clubs == free to choose but not free to harm others.

Every club has rules, defence systems and synergies otherwise they wouldn't exist -  

Supreme Court = Law & Order = lawful protection of the constitution and Liberal Democratic institutions, checks & balances and separation of powers 'to make the world safe for diversity' and arrest backsliding into deliberate, rational, purposeful, intentional, plans.
Stop the arrogant drift from the humble Classical Liberalism from Jefferson to the hubristic Modern Liberal from Hamilton Levianthan 'to protect ourselves from ourselves'.
Freedom to lawfully experiment trumps orchestrating equality of outcomes.

Foreign Policy = Rice doctrine encourages Liberal Democratic clubs and confronts clubs threatening terrorism.
Cultural tit for tat nurtures cooperation.

Lawful Free Trade = deals at market prices promotes the undistorted discovery & accumulation of global synergies of specialisation & scale.
Trade, comparative advantages, market prices. 

Eliminate Business Taxes = lower taxes on business & remove deadweight burdens = more output, more investment, less cost and less waste == 3-4% growth in 'know how' == real jobs.
Why tax business? Business can't pay taxes, only folk can pay tax? ... think about it.

Health Care & Education & Energy = 'if it’s free put me down for two please', health & education & clean air queues.
Technology provides solutions; subsidies result in imbalances.

The WTO is a club? Can the WTO stop the hubris of price fixing? Why the endless agonising over free trade?  

Can the WTO be built from the bottom up = individual initiatives & subsidiarity in the clubs = efficiently functioning families & clubs don't need the help of rent seekers & subsidised zombies ... blow them up and drain the swamp.

Comparative AdvantageWorld Trade Organisation?

The case for business rests on the profitable projects which create the mutual benefits of lawful free trade.

It is profitable to cooperate; lawful free trade at market prices is in everyone's interest.

But if free trade was such a no brainer ... why did the WTO always seem to end up in the political quagmire of 'negotiated managed trade' ... negotiation was the wrong word for the discoveries & accumulations of natural selection?

Can freedom & democracy in the cities be negotiated at the WTO; a club which is 'open for business'?

Or perhaps the WTO was just a collection of polarised politicians who disagree? 

The machinations of the World Trade Organisation and other global economic institutions exposed the difficulties faced by the men of system in policy implementation. Sooo ... a 29,000-page treaty, a bureaucrat’s dream of tariffs, regulations & quotas to protect interest groups against competitive value for consumers.

But it should be easy -

'all trade between consenting adults and their companies of choice must be lawful free trade to maximise efficiency'.

The principles were agreed but they proved almost impossible to implement by bureaucrats who disagreed -

no discrimination and restrictive practices

no restraint of trade

no arbitrary interference

competitive market prices

help others to trade through education and dispute resolution

Such was a foul predicament 'cos it seemed free trade did the bureaucrats out of a job. No one could expect turkeys to vote for Christmas. It was difficult for politics to be pro-business and pro-free trade?

Following the lead of Walter Bagehot, in 2014 the Bank of England reiterated the WTO principles; a strategy of confronting lethal debt with continued path dependent evolution which rode on the ongoing inevitable cycles of the boom & bust of human emotions. The central bank was to specialise in the provision of high growth, high value, financial services in cahoots with economies of scale from global time zone synergies in the USA & China -

global commercial banks were to be diversified equity capitalised institutions with failure absorbing capacity so they didn't become zombies but evolve as risk taking innovators seeking to discover profitable projects for the investment of rainy day savings ... 

global competitive markets were to be based on transparent asset valuations of profitable projects, avoiding the costs of gluts & queues and avoiding fake money created out of nothing ...

global central bank services were to orderly administer transparent market failures, to back diversified currencies & risk taking banks funding profitable technological innovation projects for customers everywhere ... encouraging folk to save & invest and restraining tax & spend ...

Tort Law, Trade & Technology drive policy - no bailout schemes, no ponzi schemes, no job creation schemes, no money printing, no moral hazard, no restraint of trade, no restrictive practices, no barriers to business but deep structural reforms freeing up clogged markets, diversified privatisation, enabling technological business cycles which create real jobs.

Education and simple rules of thumb - chase profits and cut losses, celebrate diversity, think the unthinkable and go for hard work, honesty & thrift, expose the myth of promises & manipulation of the instinctive emotions of the business cycle and invest personal rainy day funds in the innovative technology of choice ...

In the absence of knowledge about the future, cycles of excitement & fear inevitably drive the heuristic evolutionary progress ... the evidence is in history; relentlessly the booms are bigger than the busts as 'know how', economic interactions, science & technology and complexity grow at 3% pa compound.

Sure social folk get excited & frightened together, that is the only way economics ... & sex ... worked ... think about it?

But perhaps the stirrings of adaptation appeared after the latest crisis ... the next time will be different ... the baby survived ... the rhetoric started to change?

Different folk at different times in different places have different ideas and behave differently ... girls dance backwards ... celebrate diversity the feedstock of evolutionary change.

Diversity in social animals is mediated by universal biology, innate empathy; Adam the Smiths 'moral sentiments' underpin the vast scale of human productive interactions.

Global social and economic interactions are so diverse, dispersed & unknowable that it is physically impossible for Bishops, Princes, Generals or bureaucrats to mediate effectively through incorporation, regulation, interest group bribery and commands & controls on productive endeavour ... all in the name of unattainable solidarity, security & stability. Such hubris, never achievable, would stop evolution in its tracks.

Insights from biology lead inexorably to understanding economics ... not in impossibly complex detail but as a process of change ... genes do cost/benefit analysis.

Perhaps the WTO is destined to be resuscitated? It is always a great example of a profitable project that needs no tax funding but it was turned into a political football?

ImbalancesHistorical Rhymes = The Corn Laws & Mexican Car Capers

Agricultural interest groups lobbied for tariff protection on foreign imports and denied everybody the benefit of cheaper imported corn.

This reduced the welfare of all inside the tariff barrier.

In 1846 Robert Peel repealed the Corn Laws. A unilateral repeal of the tariff reduced the cost of corn.

The repeal of the Corn Laws was not a negotiation it was an understanding. Trade negotiations are irrelevant ... for better welfare for all businesses must get on with their job of providing innovative products & services for global markets ... otherwise they go bankrupt.

Bankruptcy sifts and feeds growth -

valuable resources are released for alternative profitable experiments and

some immunity is provided from 'rent seeking' parasites & predators ...

In 2017 The Donald had ago at repealing the Corporate Tax Laws on General Motors -

US Exports to Mexico = 20% Profits Tax in the US + VAT in Mexico = expensive.

US Imports from Mexico = low tax 'inducements' in Mexico + 0% Profits Tax until repatriated + 0% VAT in US = dirt cheap

Imbalances produced by the tax system = 'managed trade' not 'free trade'.  

No wonder the WTO treaty is 29,000 pages, a bureaucrat’s dream of tariffs, regulations & quotas to protect interest groups against competitive value for consumers.

The political quagmire polarises society and power corrupts the Presidents.

The business of business is business

 Lower taxes and deregulate to drain the swamp and rejuvenate business - 

Free Trade ==

Article 1, Section 9, of the Constitution of the USA -

'No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another'.

Managed Trade ==

NAFTA weighed in at over 2,000 pages, 900 of which are tariff rates. Under true free trade, there is one tariff rate = 0%.

WTO involves a 29,000-page treaty, a bureaucrat’s dream of tariffs, regulations & quotas to protect interest groups against competitive value for consumers.

Dodd-Frank ...

Subsidiarity == 10th Amendment, of the Constitution of the USA -

'The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people'.

The President == Administrator and Commander-in-Chief == constitutional checks & balances and separation of powers as a Common Law counterbalance 'the powers that be' ...

History continues to rhyme after 9/11 and the financial crisis of 2008 -

'Brexit means Brexit' and 'The Donald means Business'.

Subsidiarity & SolidarityEnd Note

The case for business?

The Blame Game misunderstands business & Complex Adaptive Systems -

everything depends on everything else (Darwin's Conjecture)

brains can't cope with multi levels of iterations - (Theory of Mind) 

Business copes by following very simple trial & error rules of thumb ...

discover a product or service that is wanted when sold at a price which clears markets

failure results in bankruptcy.

The 'game' involves 'social tit for tat' ... 'vote with your feet and join a club of your choice' ...

Listen to John Faulkner and understand Kewill Systems.

Hard work, honesty & thrift under the soap pans in Apapa

As the cookie crumbled in 2001 & 2008 the Bishops, Princes, Generals and bureaucrats still refused to mind their own business and messed mine all up something rotten -

'Folk have a moral duty to pay their fair share of taxes' - quite so, but as if Bishops, Princes, Generals and bureaucrats defined what is fair and what is moral ... is our morality any of their business?

'I will change the culture of tax avoidance' - as if Bishops, Princes, Generals and bureaucrats defined what was our culture ... is our culture any of their business?

Stephen Hawking was optimistic in 1988 -

'Some individuals are better able than others to draw the right conclusions about the world about them and act accordingly. These individuals will be more likely to survive and reproduce so their pattern of behaviour and thought will become dominant' ...

Xenophanes - 'A woven web of guesses'.

Plato's conundrum - 'Mob rule and emasculation of the wise' - ‘who will watch the guardians?'

Moral Sentiments & Wealth of Nations - Adam the Smith & The Scottish Enlightenment explained all about innate moral sentiments, 'resentment of cheats' and 'fairness of shares'. This 'inner light' of the Quakers, like the 'bad conscience' of the Jews was a universal human emotion; a survival aid, evolved over aeons from the abject failures of alternatives. There was a moral duty to make any unavoidable taxes ... simple, and easy to collect & understand.

Declaration of Independence Liberal Democracy - Tommy Jeffers was clear about political independence & human rights, 

'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness'

Article I, Section 9, of the Constitution of the USA -

'No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another'.

But Jefferson didn't even convince Alexander Hamilton ... 'Leviathan' backsliding was rife ... 

Power Corrupts -  Beware of Soothsayers and Bishops, Princes, Generals, bureaucrats and 'the powers that be'. One of the many who grasped the ubiquitous vulnerability of top down encyclicals was Lord Acton, 1887,

'all power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'.

Historical evidence - Edward III in 1345 learned all about fickle fate as everywhere happenings rhymed ... take a little time to understand this memorable example of unpredictable shenanigans.

Since then, and before, claiming the moral high ground for their own, Bishops, Princes, Generals and bureaucrats have continued, relentlessly, in their attempts to manipulate innate moral sentiments and cultural inheritances from the top down ... and always got it all wrong. Repeated violation of human rights by 'the powers that be' who seized unwarrantable jurisdiction over us as they imposed taxes & regulations without consent. This folly of 'restraint of trade' and 'restrictive practices' was all imposed in the name of 'the general will' which never existed.    

The Dilemma of Democracy  - 2nd Viscount Hailsham, 1976,

'instead of Liberal Democracy we have an elected remote dictatorship'

Pure Theory of Local Expenditure Charles Tiebout, 1956, suggested,

'Vote with your feet and join a club of your choice'

Endogenous Growth Theory - Paul Romer in 1986 demolished the chorus of objections to Tiebout and suggested increasing returns resulted from know how ... discovered & accumulated from interactions in cities and companies ... more diversity, more trade, more ideas, more technology.

Why can't ... the Scot Nats & the Brexiteers & the Wallonians & San Francisco & Texas & Heathrow & Gatwick & Amazon & Apple & Genentech & Unilever & Moorfield Hospital Trust & King's Chester & the Khan Academy ... choose for themselves ... and do their own lawful things? ... Why not?

NB those who say it can't be done are overtaken by those doing it!

Check it all out ... 

Darwin's explanation didn't appear until 1859.

Read Richard Dawkins 'The Selfish Gene' Chapter 12, 'Nice Guys Finish First'.

Then try some evolutionary economists - James Buchanan, Gene Farmer, Elinor Ostrom and Paul Romer.


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