American Songbook

 

American Popular Song

By the 1950s it was clear that a great tradition of American songwriting had been established; 'The American Songbook'. Popular songs written by the creative genius of a few ordinary immigrant musicians and wordsmiths. A wonderful entertainment industry of big business which fed an insatiable demand. The music followed the path dependency of evolution as the genes survived ... the differential survival of inherited random variants.

From The Blues through Vaudeville, Tin Pan Alley, Broadway, National Radio, Hollywood ... and a few superstar players, writers and singers ... to The American Songbook. This was no easy chronology of cause & effect ... the developments ebb & flowed with cycles within cycles as new musics emerged -

dynamic

contemporaneous 

interconnected

interactive

interdependent

and novel emergent cycles were also ... dynamic, contemporaneous & interconnected & interactive & interdependent & emergent!

Louis Armstrong led the way through his different interpretations of The Blues ... hot swinging jazz for dancing ... no holes barred ... the universal ubiquitous overwhelming influence of The Blues ... which was broader and wider more subtle and beguiling than any appreciated at the time ... as Albert Murray explained, The Blues knew no bounds ... but they were different, spontaneous and they swung -

the blues; hauntingly different melodies & scales with complex compelling rhythms & infectious syncopations with dirty timbres; fun, irreverence & interactive social conversations from within a tradition ... 'I Ain't Gonna Give Nobody None of My Jelly Roll'  

improvisation; spontaneous creative unwritten collective self expression, which posed an intriguing challenge for players and listeners alike as surprisingly coherent musical trajectories emerged from a spontaneous, apparently chaotic environment

swing; buoyant, detached, floating, melodic & rhythmic trajectories, away from the 'ground beat', resulting in a lilt, which was difficult to describe but unmistakable when heard and felt; it was the manifestation of the tension & release created by the interaction of juxtaposed rhythmic lines ...

The journey from The Blues to The American Songbook was the story of jazz.

Why were the songs, the repertoire, and jazz so inextricably linked?

What made the songs so distinctive and so wonderful? Why did they last so long? Why did every young jazzmen revisit the old songs?

The Great British School of Jazz spiel suggested -

'The performer or composer uses the devices of music to build up tension and excitement as patterns are established or anticipated and expectations aroused but a climax is delayed or disguised in a series of unanticipated surprises and intriguing diversions. All music plays on our natural brain sense, the art lies in tantalising the listener with heightened expectation before a final revelation'.

The jazz musician did all this on the fly ... a prerequisite was intimate familiarisation with both the sounds & emotions of the song vehicle. The key characteristic, as William Zinsser suggested, was a structure which was 'easy to remember' ... as Acker Bilk famously insisted, before you can be hauntingly different, spontaneously creative and swing the song sounds & emotions must be 'stuck in yer 'ead'.

The Smithy Lane Stompers discovered & concocted one method of familiarisation which seemed to work for some - Teaching The Blues ... 

Easy to RememberEasy to Remember Impossible to Forget

The great song writers and lyrists first and foremost wrote memorable songs. Songs that folk could relate to and become emotionally involved with. Everybody knew them, the sounds worked there way into our ears, and the words were full of meaning. Melodies were played with the lyric in mind. Playing Hart not Rodgers, and Ira not George. The melodic trajectories always followed the words with conversational ease ... this was American slang and fun not poetic striving. Lyrics had to 'sing', some words just didn't 'sing', but when they did the lyrics could be magic as song and words 'moved' a story. Pleasure ad fun songs were best and the songster were urged to 'get 'em within sight of bed by the last 8' to make a hit. Without knowing the words and the story it became almost impossible to get inside the song ... and the jazzmen had to be inside the song to swing. So much in so small a space. The songs took over. Was it an addiction? 

What was going on?

Verses were appetisers which introduced the choruses for the singers to sing and the jazzmen to play. It was the chorus was what captivated the mind; the essence ... it was the chorus when the tempo stabilised for dancing and the song began to swing.

It seemed there were stylised 'rules' for composers, it was not a free for all ... after all the songs had to be easy to remember ... of course, there were exceptions to all the rules ... but the exceptions identified the song and made the song memorable.

Almost invariably in 4/4 time, with 3 over 4 timings important for swing. 32 bars bars was acceptable brevity, 99% of American Songbook were in 4/4 with 32 bar themes ... or more importantly for the memory, 4 x 8 bar themes and a sequence with repetitions within the themes.

'AABA', the most common. 'A' theme first statement including the song title, 'A' repeated, 'B' a contrasting 'bridge', 'release', or 'middle 8', changing the mood of the song before a return to the familiar 'A' to end firmly grounded again in the home key. The middle 8 often change key as the surest way to a new mood.

The ABAB the common variant, again with repeats to help memory, but with 'B' a development or answer to 'A' ... and the final 'B' a 'run in' to the song climax. 

Only 12 notes but an infinity of exciting variations so we never tire ... but the harmonies move in 'the same old way' as the bass lines move closely through the 7th chords back to tonic ... always following the familiar sound of the circle of fifths ... or some special variant or rule break which makes each song different and both memorable & exciting.

Repeated notes for punch and energy. Skipped beats and syncopation for lift. Close lines for a relaxed feel. The song move with propulsion. Catchy 32 bar repeated phrases with a release set to some memorable ditty. The 32 formats became ubiquitous and were used extensively with the Blues as frameworks for Jazz improvisations and arrangements.

The writing of melody, harmony and lyrics was a trial & error process, the songs were tinkered into existence.

easy to rememberJazzStandards.com - a central depository of all that was wonderful about The American Song Book. The harmonic vocabulary of jazz standards was derived from classical music, but was adapted to fit the short forms 8, 12, 16, or 32 bars of standard songs making them suitable for improvisation. Jazz musicians often reduced the song to a basic harmonic framework, in order to provide 'space' for creative improvisation and make the harmonies easy to remember ... and visualise? Chord progressions became 'clichés' which were often dismissed as unsophisticated, but were an uncluttered blank canvass for creative jazz artists?

Note the figures for the number of tunes among the top 1000 jazz standards that were composed in different decades -
<1910 = 24
1910s = 36
1920s = 164
1930s = 312
1940s = 267
1950s = 131
1960s = 58
1970s = 7
1980s = 1
It was suggested that this distribution must be something to do with the harmonic structures of the songs which aid jazz improvisation. They all went the same old way of The Blues and Bill Bailey.

The VI-IIm-V7-I, turnaround magic as the b7th of the chord drops a semitone to the 3rd of the change.
We learned that variations of the two note melodies formed on the 2-3, 5-6, 1-2 of the scale could be played through the ubiquitous II-V-I chord changes.

Our very own song list that we tried to play was just an emotional dip into the treasure chest, assembled over 25 years as we indulged ourselves in The American Songbook -

Tishomingo Blues001 Tishomingo Blues - Spencer Williams 1917. Jazz started with The Blues and we started with The Blues, but this wasn't a bog standard 12 bar blues it was a 32 bar, 16x2, epic. 12 bar blues with a 4 bar tag including a 2 bar break into the second 16 which had a beguiling 8 bar run in. Tishomingo was a one horse town up north in Mississippi near the Alabama border; named after a Chickasaw Chief who was honoured by George Washington for his service.

Duke Ellington recorded in it 1928.

Bunk Johnson revived it in 1945.

Careless Love002 Careless Love - famously played as a 16 bar Blues by Buddy Bolden. Maybe originally from a Scottish folk song. 

It was bagged by W C Handy in 1926 as 'Loveless Love' with new lyrics.

The first harmony move was to the dominant 7th, then the harmonies started moving with a memorable 4 bar flow down from the tonic 7th to the subdominant and subdominant minor. The same pattern occurs in 'The Saints' ... and many others.

Recorded by Bessie Smith.

Rugged Cross003 Old Rugged Cross - George Bennard 1913. A hymn with the chords of The Blues.

Country gospel ever popular with The Salvation Army brass bands. And Mum's favourite.  

32 bars AABA with a rousing middle 8.

Inspired by a Monty Sunshine recording with Chris Barber in the 1950s.

Played by 'The Accordion Man' in 'Pennies from Heaven' in 1978.

Closer Walk004 Just a Closer Walk with Thee - black gospel song from way back.

Traditionally played as a dirge and release at the New Orleans funeral parades.

Recorded by Bunk's Brass Band with George Lewis in 1945 during the New Orleans 'renaissance' ... recreating the old music of jazz from 1915.

Notably recorded by the Olympia Brass Band in the James Bond movie 'Live and Let Die' in 1962.

St James Infirmary Blues005 St James Infirmary Blues - can be traced back to an old English folksong called 'The Unfortunate Rake' 1808 which spawned several versions based on the same story. A story about a soldier who had just come from the infirmary where he saw the corpse of his girlfriend.

Eric Townley speculated that St James Hospital in London, which treated leprous maidens, was the basis for the infirmary in the title. The hospital became St James' Palace in 1533!

Vincent Lopez played this song. Lopez was a dance band leader from New York and was a popular broadcaster on radio from 1921; 'Lopez speaking'.

Recorded by Louis Armstrong 1928.

Bagged by Irving Mills, aka Joe Primrose, in 1929.

We listened to Bruce Turner with Humph on 'Humph at The Conway' in 1954.

Rank 239.

Down by the Riverside006 Down by the Riverside - a Negro spiritual from before the Civil War, also know as 'Ain't Gonna Study War No More' and 'Gonna Lay Down my Burden'.

Eternally popular with Dixieland bands. The same old 32 bar Blues AABA changes to the dominated 7th first in bar 5 and then 'the other way' to the subdominant in the middle 8.

Recorded by The Fisk University Jubilee Quartet in 1920.

Then by every body.

My Old Kentucky Home007 My Old Kentucky Home - Stephen Foster 1852. At least one Stephen Foster song was appropriate for every repertoire. Foster wrote the first page of The American Song Book.

Recorded by Louis Armstrong in 1959 on 'Satchmo Plays King Oliver'. Louis was asked how on earth 'My Old Kentucky Home' got on to the play list, 'Well, Papa Joe may have played it ... you know'.

Basin Street Blues008 Basin Street Blues - Spencer Williams 1928. With his namesake Clarence Williams, Spencer was a prolific writer of early Blues.

Basin Street was the most famous New Orleans thoroughfare in the history of jazz. Running through Storyville from Canal Street past Lulu Whites, Mahogany Hall to 'Congo Square'. Spencer was the nephew of the notorious Lulu White of Mahogany Hall.

The famously recognised verse to the song was written later by Jack Teagarden & Glen Miller and became an obligatory introduction.

Not a bog standard 12 bar blues but rather an inspiring run round the Circle of 5ths 'Dixie Sequence' without touching the 'blue' subdominant.

Recorded by Louis Armstrong and his Hot 5 in 1928.

Recorded by Teagarden in 1931 with The Charleston Chasers.

Rank 182.

When You're Smiling009 When You're Smiling - Mark Fisher & Larry Shay 1928. Lyrics Joe Godwin.

... 'when your smiling the whole world smiles with you' ... 'when you're crying you bring on the rain' 

This song became the 'beer song' at the conclusion of rehearsals and forever a favourite. We learned that we played the lyrics not the toon.

Louis Armstrong made this a standard from his first recording in 1929.

Recorded by Billie Holiday in 1947.

Rank 225.

Bill Bailey010 Bill Bailey won't you Please Come Home - Hughie Cannon 1902.

An early ragtime number with changes which spawned hundreds of very similar songs. Essential song for improvisers to get to grips with. If you can play 'Bill Bailey' you can play 'em all.

'Over the Waves', 'Washington and Lee Swing', 'Bourbon Street Parade', 'My Little Girl', 'Tiger Rag', 'The Beer Barrel Polka' ...

Bill Bailey was a music teacher in Jackson, Michigan, where Hughie Cannon had a gig at The Whistler Bar. Bill's wife was notorious for giving her husband a hard time.

Recorded by everybody.

Rank 975.

The Saints011 The Saints - When the Saints Go Marching In - Traditional gospel hymn originating in 19th century New Orleans as a funeral march?

Probably the most requested song ever and subsequently not popular with many performers. Everybody knows it as a simple catchy tune with the harmonies starting to move with a memorable 4 bar flow down from the tonic 7th to the subdominant and subdominant minor in the middle 4 bars.

The song was popularised in 1938 by Louis Armstrong, who recorded the song over 40 times during his career.

I Can't Give You Anything but Love012 I Can't Give You Anything but Love - Jimmy McHugh 1928. With Dorothy Fields.

From Lew Leslie's 'Blackbirds of 1928'. This team also gave us 'On the Sunnyside of the Street'.

... 'gee I'd like to see you looking swell, Baby, diamond bracelets Woolworths doesn't sell, Baby''

Recorded by Louis Armstrong in 1929.

The Mills Brothers in 1932.

Rank 162.

Big Butter and Egg Man013 Big Butter and Egg Man - Percy Venable 1926.

Nickname for wealthy farmers from the mid west who came to Chicago for the big spend. May Alix did the running splits at The Sunset Café, Chicago ... and Louis played a perfect solo.

... 'I'm getting tired of working all day, I want somebody who wants me to play' ...

Recorded by Louis Armstrong Hot 5 1926.

Make Me a Pallet on the Floor014 Make Me a Pallet on the Floor - an exquisite 16 bars in Bb which was on Buddy Bolden's play list. Jelly Roll Morton explained all at The Library of Congress, 'This was one of the early Blues from New Orleans, many years before I was born. ... 'make me a pallet on the floor so your man will never know' ... and so forth and so on'.

The first song our Banjo Player sang in 1993.

W C Handy bagged this song for his 'Atlanta Blues'.

Reorded by Merline Johnson in 1937.

Erika Lewis with Tuba Skinny in 2013.

By & By015 By & By - 'We’ll Understand It Better By and By' -  Charles Albert Tindley 1906. Another old Spiritual written by Tindley (1851-1933) who was born a slave and became 'the Father of Gospel Music'. He also wrote 'We Shall Overcome', the anthem of the Civil Rights Movement.

Tindley became a minister of Bainbridge Street Methodist Church, Philadelphia and used his intellectual ability, eloquence, and spiritual singing to amass a congregation of over ten-thousand members.

There'll be Some Changes Made

016 There'll be Some Changes Made - Benton Overstreet 1921. With Billy Higgins. An all Afro American affair.

Infuriating 36 bars ABAB 16 + 16 bars with a 4 bar tag ... but it doesn't make it back to the tonic until bar 31 ... after meandering around the circle of 5ths nevertheless intoxicating.

... 'nobody wants you when you're old & grey, there'll be some changes made today' ...

Ethel Waters recorded it in 1921. Sophie Tucker 1927. Chicago Rhythm Kings 1928. Boswell Sisters 1932. Fats Waller 1934. Art Tatum 1941. Billie Holiday 1959.

Recorded by George Melly in 1972.

Rank 401.

Way Down Yonder in New Orleans017 Way Down Yonder in New Orleans - Turner Layton 1922. With Henry Cramer. 'A southern song, without a mammy, mule or moon'. The same duo who gave us 'After You've Gone'. 

... 'it's a heaven right here on earth, all those beautiful queens, way down yonder in New Orleans' ...

Recorded by Layton & Johnstone in 1927.

The Andrew Sisters 1950.

Rank 368.

018 Georgia Camp Meeting - Kerry Mills 1898. Before Jazz there was Ragtime, and it was fun dancing The Cakewalks.

 

024 Darktown Strutters Ball - Shelton Brooks 1917. One of the best black songsters. This song was included in Sophie Tuckers vaudeville show.

A must play for us as it was the favourite song of The Banjo Player's dad who played a mean alto sax.

One of the first Jazz recordings by The Original Dixieland Jazz Band from New Orleans.

Recorded in New York in 1917 for The Victor Talking Machine Company. Rank 547.

033 Margie - Rank 268.

036 Tin Roof Blues -

Became our banker as a Blues in Bb.

Recorded by Jo Stafford in 19?? as 'Make Love to Me'.

Rank 614.

039 World is Waiting for the Sunrise - Ernst Seitz 1919. With Eugene Lockhart.

Rank 874.

040 Back Home again in Indiana - James F Hanley & Ballard MacDonald 1917.

Another song from the first recordings of The Original Dixieland Jazz Band in New York in 1917.

Played several times a night in Reisenweber's Café in 1918.

044 Beale Street Blues - W C Handy 1916. Born in Alabama the son of a pastor. Handy settled in Memphis in 1909 and played the clubs of Beale Street ... the famous road in downtown Memphis.

In 1903, waiting for a train at Tutwiler, Mississippi Delta, Handy told the tale of how he met the Blues -

'A lean loose-jointed Negro had commenced plunking a guitar beside me while I slept ... as he played, he pressed a knife on the strings of the guitar in a manner popularized by Hawaiian guitarists who used steel bars ... the singer repeated the line three times, accompanying himself on the guitar with the weirdest music I had ever heard'

We have to thank Handy, he not only heard the 'weird' Blues he wrote them down as best he could and introduced the world to this new music.

Handy's popular music publications were formalisations of the sounds he heard on the Delta.

Recorded by Ottilie Patterson in 1958.

Rank 463.

048 Mood Indigo - Duke Ellington 1930. With Barney Bigard & Irving Mills.

Sung by Ivie Anderson in 1940.

Rank 161.

054 Whispering -  a strong professional piece.

Rank 540.

055 Who's Sorry Now - Bert Kalmer, Ted Synder 1923. With Harry Ruby.

Connie Francis recorded in 195?'

Rank 454.

058 Black and Blue - Fats Waller 1929. With Andy Razaf.

Rank 432.

059 's Wonderful - George & Ira Gershwin 1927. From 'Funny Face'.

064 Some of These Days - Shelton Brooks 1910.

Perhaps his best, made famous by the last of the red hot Mamas; Sophie Tucker.

Remembered by Tommy Jones at The Mill, Chester.

Recorded by Sophie Tucker in 1927.

086 You'd be so Nice to Come Home To - Cole Porter 1942. Wrote his own lyrics. A rich boy from the midwest with a homosexual bent, from Boarding School and Yale.

087 St Louis Blues - W C Handy 1914.

He published blues lines from the songs he heard & played ... and this was his most famous ... with a 'Spanish tinge'.

Recorded by everyone.

088 Sweet Georgia Brown - Maceo Pinkard 1925, With Ben Bernie & Ken Casey. 

Rank 16.

094 As Time Goes By - Herman Humpfeld 1931. Originally written for the Broadway musical 'Everybody's Welcome' which everybody has forgotten but nobody has forgotten 'Casablanca' and Rick's Café in 1942.

Rudy Vallée modeled his jazz crooning style on saxophone phrasing from 1929. He recorded this standard in 1943.

We played this one for the Millennium. Emotionally off the chart.

097 Stormy Weather - Harold Arlen & Ted Koehler 1933. From 'Cotton Club Parade' sung by Ethel Waters. So emotional and who could forget those added bars. It took a long time to master this.

106 Yellow Dog Blues - W C Handy 1914. 

Each song told a 'story' ... this railroad tale identified the whereabouts of a lover ... 'goin' where The Southern cross The Dog'.

Recorded by Bessie Smith in

118 Memphis Blues - W C Handy 1911. The song that made Handy's reputation with the help of Vernon & Irene Castle and their dance craze with Jim Europe.

Recorded by Jim Europe in 1919.

Rank 725.

124 Swing Low Sweet Chariot -

Rank 478.

Slow Boat to China140 On a Slow Boat to China - Frank Loesser 1948. Rank 630.
Frank was steeped in classical music. Lyrics first then songs. From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood to Broadway.
Initially he had 'a rendezvous with failure'. Then 'Two Sleepy People' & 'Heart & Soul' with Hoagy, 'Slow Boat to China' 1948, 'Baby it's Cold Outside' 1949.
Was 'Slow Boat' song a bizarre selection for jazz improvisation? In 1948 jazzers were playing The Standards in the The American Songbook with the typical Blues and 'Rhythm' changes but Loesser's 'Slow Boat' was a pop song of the day.
Recorded by Benny Goodman in 1948.
Charlie Parker in 1949.
Sonny Rollins in 1951.
Rosemary Clooney & Bing Crosby in 1958.
Fats Domino and Paul McCartney.

141 It's Only a Paper Moon - Harold Arlen 1933, With Yip Harburg & Billy Rose.

The song has long endured as a popular vehicle for jazz improvisations. The bluesy Arlen melodic line follows the Blues changes to the subdominant then the dominant in the first 4 bars, repeated 4 times to a neat middle 8 which takes us back to the tonic 3 times before a turnaround to the main theme. No wonder improvisers loved it.

Recorded by Paul Whiteman in 1933. Nat King Cole in 1944. Ella Fitzgerald in 1945. Rank 154.

And almost everyone else including Ian Wheeler with Chris Barber in 1961.

146 Summertime - George & Ira Gershwin 1935. From 'Porgy & Bess' a mould breaking folk opera. Summertime was no 32 bar cliché but a minor Blues like no other. Rhythms of the cotton fields. Gershwin lived in Catfish Row, South Carolina. He was into jazz, they were all a continuity.

Summertime was difficult to play because it was different. But we were happy we played it, it was a real Blues.

Rank3.

147 Button Up Your Overcoat - Ray Henderson 1928. With B G DeSylva & Lew Brown. From 'Follow Thru' 1928.
Easy to sing and remember, gems of economy. This gang also wrote; 'The Best Things in Life are Free', 'You're the Cream in My Coffee', 'Life is Just a Bowl of Cherries', 'You are My Lucky Star', 'Birth of the Blues'.

162 You're Dancing on My Heart -

Victor Silvester.

163 Roll Along Prairie Moon - Albert Von Tilzer 1935. With Ted Fio Rito & Harry McPherson.

Jack Jackson & His Orchestra

164 Apple Blossom Time - Albert Von Tilzer 1920. With Neville Fleeson.

165 Dapper Dan - Albert Von Tilzer 193

166 Oh You Beautiful Doll -

The first published 12 bar Blues.

167 Down Sunnyside Lane - Jimmy Campbell 1931. With Reg Connelly.

Jack Payne & BBC Dance Orchestra

168 Painting the Clouds with Sunshine - Joe Burke 1929.

Joe Burke (1884-1950) from Philadelphia, a silent movie pianist. He wrote this song with Al Dubin for 'Gold Diggers of Broadway' in 1929.
Many hits different lyricists. 'Oh How I Miss You Tonight' (1924), 'Tiptoe Through the Tulips' (1929), 'Carolina Moon' (1929), 'Moon Over Miami' (1935), 'It Looks Like Rain in Cherry Blossom Lane' (1937) and 'Rambling Rose' (1948).

169 Pennies from Heaven - Johnny Burke 1936. With Arthur Johnston.

Sung by Arthur Tracy. 

170 Clouds will Soon Roll By - Harry Woods 19. With Billy Hill.

Elsie Carlisle with Bert Ambrose and His Orchestra.

171 On the Sunny Side of the Street - Jimmy McHugh 1930. Withe Dorothy Fields. Also gave us ' I Can't Give You Anything but Love' in 1929.

172 Blue Moon -

173 You've Got Me Crying Again - Isham Jones / Charles Newman.

Bert Ambrose & His Orchestra

174 Yes, My Baby Said Yes - Con Conrad 1931. With Cliff Friend.
Bert Ambrose & His Orchestra

175 Life Begins at Oxford Circus -

Jack Hylton.

176 - We'll Make Hay While the Sun Shines - Nacio Herb Brown , With Arthur Freed.

Billy Merrin and His Commanders.

177 Anything Goes - Cole Porter 1934 - 'In olden days a glimpse of stocking was looked on as something shocking, now, heaven knows, anything goes'.

178 Says My Heart - Frank Loesser 19??.

Lou Levy & His Orchestra.

179 Moon Got in My Eyes - Johnny Burke 19??. With Arthur Johnston.

Carroll Gibbons / Savoy Hotel Orpheans

180 Whistling in the Dark - Dana Suesse 19??.

Bert Ambrose & His Orchestra.

181 Continental -

182 Sentimental Journey - Les Brown & Ben Homer 1944. Lyrics Bud Green.

Les Brown & His Band of Renown with Doris Day.

Played by the Dennis Williams Quintet in the dark at Clemences in 1959. We recalled Miss Jones needed a song, 'please play that lovely one that goes down in semitones'.

Conway Twitty recorded a Rock 'n' Roll version in 1959.

The Platters recorded it in 1963,

183 I Got Rhythm - George & Ira Gershwin 1930. From 'Girl Crazy'.

George & Ira Gershwin wrote for the unforgettable Fred Astaire & Ginger Rodgers dance movies.

Learn to 'I Got Rhythm' and you can play jazz standards!

In Bb bars 1-2 and 3-4 turnarounds back to Bb. Then in bars 5-6 the song goes the other way, from I7, Bb7 to the IV, Eb, and IVm, Ebm. Bars 7-8 another turnaround. Repeated with a middle 8 circle of 5ths, 2 bars D7 to G7 to C7 to F7.
The VI-IIm-V7-I, turnaround magic as the b7th of the chord drops a semitone to the 3rd of the change.
We learned that variations of the two note melodies formed on the 2-3, 5-6, 1-2 of the scale could be played through the ubiquitous II-V-I chord changes.

184 It Had to Be You -

185 Red River Valley -

186 Make the Knife - Kurt Weill 1928. A German classicist who reinvented himself in American pop. The Threepenny Opera included this sardonic song was written in Germany in 1928 resuscitated on Off-Broadway in 1954.

Weil left Germany in 1933 and wrote 'Lady in the Dark' in 1941 with Ira Gershwin, famous for dream sequences with a shrink in a fantasy world. 

Louis Armstrong recorded the song in 1956.

Bobby Darin in 1959.

Rank 110.

187 Just Let Me Look at You - Jerome Kern 19 , With Dorothy Fields.

Lew Stone & His Orchestra

188 Love is the Sweetest Thing - Ray Noble 19??.

Al Bowlly.

189 You Couldn't Be Cuter - Jerome Kern

Lew Stone & His Orchestra

190 Better Think Twice -

Carroll Gibbons / Savoy Hotel Orpheans

 

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